🔵⚪🔴 Why do people turn to social media to share their experiences of sexual assault? – Stratégie Réseaux Sociaux


IN EARLY 2017, the conviction of Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein for sexual crimes (he was subsequently jailed) became the kick-off point for the MeToo movement.

The movement was a rallying moment for people – particularly women – who had experienced sexual assault, harassment and rape. 

Taking the form initially as the hashtag #MeToo, it was used as a way for people to speak out about the sexual violence they had experienced. It served to show that they were not alone, and that gender-based violence is widespread.

MeToo has continued to inspire survivors to write about their experiences online. Some do this anonymously; others use their name. 

Some choose to name the perpetrator, while others don’t.

As more people turn to the internet to disclose their experience, questions have started to emerge.

Such as: what does the disclosure of sexual assault, rape or harassment mean for the survivor – and could the naming of alleged perpetrators lead to legal issues for survivors and/or social media platforms?

Are survivors turning to social media-based groups who might promise help – but not have the requisite skills or training?

The vast majority of sexual crimes are not pursued through the courts – how can the legal system better support victims?

And as these sexual crimes show no sign of disappearing, how can Irish society move towards a space where they decrease?

To take a closer look at the situation in 2021, The Journal spoke to a young man who disclosed his rape on Tumblr; the CEO of Dublin Rape Crisis Centre (DRCC) Noeline Blackwell; sexual health educator Dr Caroline West; and retired judge of the High Court, Judge Bernard Barton.

‘I wrote about my rape on Tumblr’

shutterstock_1232198269
Source: Shutterstock/Socialtruant

Figures released in February of this year showed that in 2020, the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) ordered the prosecution of 168 people charged with rape. This was an increase from from 124 in 2019, the Irish Times reported.

This number, said Noeline Blackwell, is a “fraction” of the cases reported to the gardaí. While people might report their crime, that does not mean that they will always choose to pursue a legal case – or that the DPP believes there is enough evidence to secure a conviction. Just because there is not enough evidence does not mean a crime did not take place.

The number of suspects facing prosecution for sexual offences in 2020 also rose – to 530, from 459. Overall, numbers “have been going up over the past five years”, said Blackwell.

As the numbers have risen, so too appears to be prevalence of people speaking out about their experience. “We have seen a significant step forward in the discussion around the previously very hidden issue of sexual violence,” said Blackwell. 

One man in his late 20s, named Chris, spoke to The Journal about how, after he was raped by an acquaintance five and a half years ago, he wrote about the experience on the website Tumblr, (a social networking site), as a way of disclosing what had happened.

He found that writing about it online helped, particularly as he later decided not to pursue a legal case – something which he highlights is common among rape survivors. 

In Chris’s case, though the encounter started off consensual, at one point he got uncomfortable and asked the man to stop. Physical force was used to keep going. 

“I think it’s important to point out those things because it’s a complex story, it’s not the simple one that many people imagine rape to be. It’s still a legitimate story,” said Chris. 

He didn’t approach the gardaí at first. “In the immediate aftermath I didn’t think of it as assault,” he explained. But six months later, while having a full STI test, he realised that it was the first time he had felt at real risk of having contracted an infection.

“That was the point I realised: I did not choose to be in this situation,” he explained.

I think the night I went home from that test, I wrote the Tumblr post. It was just saying – here I am, this is something that happened to me.

As a queer man, the internet had been a place for Chris to express his queerness on his own terms. So writing a personal post about his assault “felt safe”. 

I could be myself and if people see it they see it, and I don’t have to deal with the sit-down, face-to-face conversation with someone. I don’t want to ‘come out’ about what happened to me. If they want to ask questions, that’s fine – I feel like I have said what happened.

He said “it’s not surprising” to see more people disclosing their experiences online post-MeToo, “when so few cases are prosecuted and so few are won that people are fed up”. Faced with the potential of not being able – or not desiring to – pursue a legal case, survivors can instead turn to the internet to have their story heard, and to find solidarity. 

The impact of MeToo has meant that survivors’ concerns around being believed have lessened, said Chris.

Before [MeToo], there was not as much public discourse but the question was ‘would you be believed’. That has flipped now. Most people expect survivors who come forward will be believed by a lot of people.

‘It was – we believe it, but we still don’t care’

shutterstock_1011808069
Source: Shutterstock/Erin Alexis Randolph

The election of Donald Trump in the US helped spur Chris on further. Hearing the reports about Trump’s alleged sexual misconduct had an effect on him. “As soon as the sexual assault [claims] came out, I thought: he’s gone – who will vote for this guy?” explained Chris.

But, as we know, Trump was voted into power. “It’s odd that something abstract would affect me but that was the point I started to talk to friends,” said Chris. “[I thought,] this might be more serious than I had realised or let on.”

Chris had felt that when women came forward with stories about Trump, “no one seemed to disbelieve the story had happened. It was: we believe it but we still don’t care”. To him, this was indicative of attitudes within society about rape and sexual assault.

In part spurred on by this, Chris rang the Dublin Rape Crisis Centre a year after his assault. As there was a long waiting list for counselling, he was seen by a therapist one year later. 

“It was only when I was at my first session with my therapist and I told her what had happened, she asked ‘is it okay for you to call it rape?’… That was the first time I associated it with what happened. I was very uncomfortable.”

He went to the gardaí in the autumn of 2019. The gardaí told Chris that if they were to investigate the case, they would have to take his phone off him and access all of his online accounts.

“Ultimately I reached a point where I thought: ‘I don’t really want my personal life to be invaded for an incredibly low chance of something happening’,” he recalled.

He noted that the DPP not pursuing a case, or getting a not guilty verdict, could “be interpreted as ‘nothing happened’, so I wasn’t willing to take that risk as well.” In addition, he had concerns about going through the court system itself. 

I think also at the moment with the legal system, because it’s a crime against the State – [as a rape survivor] you are a witness to your own crime, and we’ve heard the stories about ways people are treated.

‘They feel they’re on trial’

shutterstock_1812892960
Source: Shutterstock/Salivanchuk Semen

The issue of how victims are treated in sexual violence cases was raised recently by solicitor Sarah Grace, who spoke to the Irish Times after a man was convicted of breaking into her home and violently sexually attacking her.

She has written to the Minister for Justice, Helen McEntee, to outline her concerns around how the courts interact with victims, and is due to meet with McEntee on the subject. 

McEntee was also due to meet with a rape survivor in Co Kerry, who has called for character testimonials for defendants in rape cases to be discontinued.  

Noeline Blackwell of DRCC said there can be numerous reasons why survivors don’t pursue court cases.

“There is a well recognised concern that only a small proportion of those who disclose sexual offences go forward to report them to the Gardaí for prosecution. And many more will drop out of the process between the time of report and going to court,” said Blackwell. 

“Because most victims know the perpetrator and may even live or work with them, there can be pressure to withdraw. People may also get so tired of the delay and the invasive nature of the investigation that they give up,” she said.

Even if they stay engaged, delays and the overall air of hostility that they feel from the justice system can make it a really traumatic experience. They feel that they’re not believed, and that rather than being a witness, they’re on trial – without legal support and with their most intimate thoughts and actions being questioned.

This year, Minister McEntee launched a new Victims Charter website, which has a dedicated section for victims of sexual crime. Her department also launched a new strategy, Supporting A Victim’s Journey.

McEntee’s comments on the strategy highlight that the justice department is aware of the concerns from sexual violence survivors:

After suffering the most appalling abuse and violence, many victims feel they cannot come forward and report what happened to them. Sometimes this can be because of a fear they won’t be believed, or a fear of how the crime will be investigated. Many fear how they will be treated in court: how they could be traumatised again as they seek justice. I want to remove that fear, support victims every step of the way and create a system centred around them.

Though Chris ultimately decided not to pursue a court case, he was still left with anxiety about the decision. He was “living with quite a bit of guilt, which was ‘I haven’t done anything to stop this guy going out and doing it again – who knows if he has or not? Is this my responsibility, to go out and do something about that?’”

“It asks a lot of the people who are most affected and most traumatised to take more responsibility on. It’s a difficult position to be put in,” he said.

This is interlinked with Chris’s thoughts on how the MeToo movement might have put an onus on survivors “to tell their story no matter what the cost is to them”.

He worries that after personal stories were central to the successful marriage equality and abortion referendum campaigns, the onus remains on people affected by the issue to speak up.

“I do feel we are asking survivors to be incredibly vulnerable and put themselves in harm’s way from the responses they might receive,” said Chris. 

He is also concerned about how protected people are when sharing their stories online. “I don’t think [social media sites] can be described as safe spaces,” he said. “They are tools but I think that tools can be weaponised in any number of ways.”

Chris has done a huge amount of personal and therapeutic work, and also has a good support network, but cautioned that not every survivor has this. He said it is legitimate and understandable that people can find power in sharing their story – especially when they don’t feel, like him, that they will get legal justice. 

But there can be an impact on survivors of telling their story in order to receive the validation they might not get from the courts.

For him, the focus needs to be turned to how we as a society can combat sexual violence. 

This primarily comes down to teaching people about consent from a young age. “Even if the word ‘yes’ is not spoken, how do we recognise it?” explained Chris.

While sexual assault as a crime might never disappear, Chris said that it would be huge for society “if everyone recognised what consent is, and that it can be given and withdrawn at any time.”

“Not only could it increase the likelihood of successful prosecution if jurors, judges, and lawyers all had a clear understanding, but it could also act as a deterrent in the first place.”

‘Having people say victim-blaming things was quite hard’

shutterstock_367486148
Source: Shutterstock/Matthew Nigel

Dr Caroline West is a sexual educator and lecturer. She has also chosen to disclose her experience of sexual assault, and speaks about it during her workshops.

“I do wish people didn’t have to share their trauma for people to care, but in my situation I like using it as a learning tool for people and being able to talk about it in person rather than an abstract theory,” she said.

She described MeToo as “the catalyst for looking at everyday sexual violence”. “I think it was really interesting for bringing the idea into play that sexual violence is a spectrum,” she said. Learning about the spectrum helped her to heal.

She said that MeToo can encourage informal conversations and empower people to go to a Rape Crisis Centre or the gardaí. “Seeing people share experiences that you might identify with can empower people and break the silence.’” 

But, like Chris, she said that disclosing online can also make people vulnerable. 

“Some people would say that if it is anonymous it doesn’t count – you have to put your name to it. But for some people that is not an option due to defamation laws, or fear of retribution.”

The other side to this is that people can share their story and find “accounts doubting the story or victim-blaming or being nasty, screenshotting those stories and sharing them”. 

In addition, encouraging people to speak out can lead to contact from other survivors.  While this can bring solidarity, it can also be difficult for survivors. “Sometimes you mightn’t be able to process that trauma,” said West.

In theory it can be a good idea but in reality it can be hard to control the narrative and the abuse people can face as a result. When I shared my experience, having people say the victim-blaming things was quite hard. It was a whole other thing to deal with alongside the violation – you have to deal with people saying what were you wearing, etc. It’s doubly traumatising.

Often online disclosure “is something people will be very proud of, and the pushback or speculation that comes [in some] spaces is very difficult”, said Noeline Blackwell.

West said that the big question is: why do people feel the need to speak out? She puts it down to the justice system being “not fit for purpose” in dealing with sexual violence, and said a trial can re-traumatise a victim and lead to victim blaming.

She pointed to a court case in 2018, where a woman was asked during a rape trial about the underwear she wore on the day in question. The case (the man was acquitted) led to protests and international coverage of what happened. 

Like Chris, West believes the solution to tackling the underlying issue of sexual violence in Irish society is “to build a consent culture from the ground up”.

“At the moment we do live in a rape culture, but we are working toward a consent culture,” she said.

Post-MeToo, consent classes began to be rolled out in Irish colleges and universities. “There was backlash; there were op-eds about how terrible this is. But now they are being rolled out into secondary schools,” said West. 

She said that age-appropriate consent classes should happen “from womb to tomb, making it a continuous conversation”.

In Irish society we are great at talking about something for a while and then we go quiet again. There are cycles of outrage and then silence. I still feel there is a long way to go. I didn’t realise what had happened to me was sexual violence.

#Open journalism

No news is bad news
Support The Journal

Your contributions will help us continue
to deliver the stories that are important to you

Support us now

Survivor groups

shutterstock_1702566826
Source: Shutterstock/fizkes

As more people have begun disclosing online, there have also been online-based survivor-led support groups appearing. Some share stories and campaign through social media, offering peer support. But Chris urged caution about solely relying on these.

“The trained professionals are going to give you the best reception you are going to get. I cannot emphasise how wonderful the DRCC are,” he said.

“I think unofficial groups are good and I think they can be constructive. The concern comes because it is such a wide-ranging field.”

Building his understand that what happened to him is an abuse of power has helped him. “It’s not about sex. It’s a very specific type of thing and I think those peer support groups might be missing some of that, and certainly in terms of disclosure I would urge people to go to a professional source first to build up your resilience.”

When it comes to people contacting the DRCC, Noeline Blackwell said that in 2020, they saw a pattern similar to what usually happens at Christmas – calls stayed low.

“This was an experience that was seen throughout Europe, it really was that people did not look for help,” she said. Reasons included a lack of privacy, she said, along with new carer responsibilities. 

“During the lower levels of restriction we saw increased reporting,” she added.

“It’s important to realise sexual assaults were still happening, people still needed forensic attention. The trope of the Saturday night rape is only one type of sexual assault.”

The numbers have been going up every year but the DRCC can’t account for why. The last country-wide sexual violence survey was published in 2002, and the CSO is now engaged in a further large study, but the results won’t be known for the next two to three years.

‘The consequences are out of your control’

shutterstock_573033001
Source: Shutterstock/Twin Design

When it comes to people deciding to disclose online, Noeline Blackwell said that it can bring some people “part of relief of hidden burdens to be able to share, and often it can be hard to share in traditional ways in society as people don’t want you to talk about it”.

“All of that is fine but the consequences are somewhat out of your control then unless you’ve had time to think,” she cautioned.

Blackwell said that Twitter and other social media sites “have allowed people to say things not always in the safest way, not always correctly, but have allowed people to do what they do on our helpline – not say who they were, sometimes not even have to talk.”

She believes issues like the Repeal movement “made young people question why it was that assaults that were so vicious and violent and that had such damage to them, their parents, siblings, others – why was it that you weren’t allowed to talk about them?”

When people disclose about their assault, some might choose to name their perpetrator, while others don’t. It’s a hugely personal thing. If the case does get to court and there is a conviction, victims are afforded anonymity, while the perpetrator is named (unless their naming would identify the victim).

“The thing is that it’s impossible to generalise about it because people come with their own reasons,” said Blackwell.

But amongst the reasons we hear quite regularly are that people recognise that it is not their shame and that it should not be for them to carry the secret and the shame.

People also have told her they want the perpetrator named so that it is recognised that what happened is a widespread problem.

She said that the gardaí have told the DRCC that some people name the perpetrator “in case there are other victims of the same perpetrator out there.”

On this topic of choosing to name a perpetrator or not, Chris said that he guessed there could be two main motivations behind naming: “Seeking accountability, especially when the legal system might not be an option or a survivor might not want to go down that road but still believes – justifiably, I think! – that there needs to be some sense of justice for them; and also to try to warn or protect others who an assaulter might try to abuse”.

“I think the latter part is related to the concerns about what responsibilities a survivor has, as I said above. Although again, I’d fall pretty heavily on the side of believing that it’s not up to survivors to put themselves at risk to protect others, and that survivors are not responsible for their assailant’s actions at any stage, but that it comes back to education around consent and the knock-on effects that has on people’s behaviour, and how the justice system thinks about and treats sexual assault and rape.”

Blackwell also raised the question of what social media sites can do to protect people who make disclosures.

“There is still a lot of talking to be done with very powerful commercial entities, not just the social media companies – porn sites as well,” she said.

Harmful sharing happens very, very, very fast. Safe sharing is much slower.

One concern for a person who does name a perpetrator online could be the risk of defamation. A retired judge of the High Court, Judge Bernard Barton said that people should be extremely cautious around naming an alleged abuser online.

“If they’re saying that they identify the person as being a perpetrator of an alleged crime against someone, that is very serious. You’re saying this person is a criminal,” said Judge Barton.

Ireland’s defamation laws come under the Defamation Act 2009. To prove defamation, you must show that the statement was published, referred to the person alleging defamation, and was false. ‘Published’ can mean published online – but Judge Barton pointed out that there is a debate over who ‘published’ a defamatory statement: was it the person who wrote it, or the website?  

“There’s a big debate at the moment about online platforms and whether online platforms are going to be liable for defamation, and that’s a question which courts haven’t had to decide,” he said.

The platforms believe that they’re just platforms and they seem to think that they’re immune. I think they’ve got a problem – I don’t believe that is the case, because it’s just a matter of time where the platform is going to be brought into proceedings as a co-defendant, as a publisher.

He added: “One of the things which a jury has to decide is the extent of the defamation. If it is over the internet this could be enormous [due to the potential reach of a social media post], so you would see why the platforms would fight this tooth and nail.” 

He explained more about the potential legal issues that could occur if someone names an alleged perpetrator online.

“So the problem of going on the internet [and] saying ‘I’m the victim of a crime’ – you might be, but to identify Joe Bloggs as your assailant is defamatory unquestionably. Until the fact is proven, it is defamatory,” said Judge Barton.

If it’s true, it’s unlikely that the alleged perpetrator is going to sue, because the defence of the media outlet relying on the story they got from the alleged victim is ‘it’s true’. Unlike a criminal case where the burden of proof is to establish the case beyond any reasonable doubt, the burden of proof in civil action is to establish the case on the balance of probabilities.

In a defamation action, which is a civil action, the plaintiff would be the alleged assailant. If a civil case was taken over a comment that was published, the defendants might include the alleged victim alongside the publisher. That is different to a rape trial, for example, which is a criminal case – and the plaintiff in a rape trial case would be the alleged victim. 

Noeline Blackwell said that “the chilling effect of litigation and defamation in this country is real, and it has been used not just online, but offline as well, to deny people comment which if they could afford to go to court could well be found to be valid.”

The issue of anonymous online accounts can also be an issue, as much as they can be a helpful tool for survivors to speak out, she said.

But the situation overall regarding people speaking out in an online space, particularly if they name a perpetrator, is one that is constantly evolving. 

Said Blackwell:

I think we can’t have either extreme. We can’t have it that someone can post something online, even if a relief to themselves, if what they are doing is unfairly destroying someone else’s reputation or career. We can’t have a situation either where nobody can speak the truth because they are so terrified of defamation.

Helplines/support:



Publié le Catégories Réseaux sociaux

🔵⚪🔴 Psychological Warfare: Principles for Global Competition – Stratégie Réseaux Sociaux


Psychological Warfare: Principles for Global Competition

By MAJ Robert Coombs

Principles of PSYOP

We have been handicapped however by a popular attachment to the concept of a basic difference between peace and war, by a tendency to view war as a sort of sporting contest outside of all political context by a national tendency to see a political cure-all, and by a reluctance to recognize the realities of international relations – the perpetual rhythm of struggle, in and out of war.[1]

  • George Kennan, The Inauguration of Organized Political Warfare, 1948

 

NSC 4, 1947, identified the United States “is not now employing strong, coordinated information measures to counter this [Russian] propaganda campaign or to further the attainment of its national objectives.”[2] The United States once again finds itself in the same predicament following the Second World War; we are in a global competition with revisionist states that seek to exert power through non-military capabilities. Captain Charles Smith stated in 1952, “Modern warfare has become total; it involves not only the man who fires the gun but every man and woman who can help build the gun or who can help make the man want to fire the gun… Therefore, military strategy must not only deal with overcoming the physical ability of the enemy to resist, it must also deal with the minds – to destroy the morale – of the whole population in order that military victory is made with the least cost to us in men, money and materials.”[3] The United States is realigning our military obligations once again, developing a scenario reminiscent of the 1950s when physical force was insufficient to achieve national strategic goals. This environment is ripe for the renaissance of psychological warfare, where soft power and influence through is the coin of the realm. To operate in an environment where influence takes primacy over physical prowess, we must understand the principles of psychological warfare that make up this environment.

This analysis of the principles of psychological warfare is rooted in a study of history and modern approaches to the craft. It incorporates various concepts of psychological warfare and common threads that make-up successful military and political warfare, in order to universalize a set of principles for military leaders to incorporate into operations. Prima facie these principles are rather obvious to military planners, but violated during execution to the detriment of US national strategy.  The principles argued here are simple and work regardless of the operational environment or technological improvements. They are: psychological warfare is the first activity in conflict; psychological warfare is continuous and active; psychological warfare produces effects in the “real” world; the target audience will always dictate time; everything is a psychological warfare tool; psychological warfare occurs at every echelon; and psychological warfare is unrestricted. Psychological warfare plays a key role in competition, and when analyzed within the framework of Clausewitz’s three criteria for success, namely,  the enemy’s physical losses, his loss of moral power, and the enemy’s open avowal of defeat and relinquishment of his intentions.[4]

John Foster Dulles commented in 1955 during his “Address on Peace” that, “Divisions of land and water, of desert and mountain range, of river and plain have lost much of their significance.”[5] He depicts a dilemma where maps and populations are no longer contiguous, leading to new competitions in international politics. We have now entered a new phase of the digitally interconnected world where physical topography has given way to a digital topography. In this landscape, the effects of psychological warfare achieve greater prominence due to the speed of communication and the ease of connecting networks of populations like never before.  Yet, while the environmental conditions for warfare appear to be changing, the principles of psychological warfare are not.  The goal of all operations, regardless of the topography in which we find ourselves, remains constant to Clausewitz’s three requirements for success listed above. These principles direct the state’s energy against the moral and physical power of the enemy force; but more importantly, it works to force the enemy to abdicate their intentions and acknowledge their relative position in the global environment.

Before analyzing the principles of psychological warfare, we must acquaint ourselves with a proper lexicon for psychological warfare. Over the years, the military has changed and obfuscated the terminology of psychological warfare to appeal to a greater audience.  Paul Linebarger, one of the foremost theoreticians on psychological warfare in the United States, stated, “When ‘Psychological Warfare’ in its turn became disreputable, ‘information services’ took its place. If ‘information services’ get to be recognized for the propaganda which they are, I have no doubt that some careful and pious scholar or official will find an even prettier label to apply to the same old activity.”[6] As the warning entailed, we have now ended up with the term Military Information Support Operations (MISO) as some strange overarching name to classify the multitude of activities modern psychological operations, or PSYOP, soldiers find themselves conducting. MISO activities now include everything from cyber warfare, deception, and social manipulation, to kinetic actions for psychological effect. This MISO terminology supports two false narratives, first that it is merely informational, and secondly that it is just a support activity.  However, it did achieve the government’s official goal under Secretary of Defense Robert Gates trying to change the concept of an ancient governmental activity into something more palatable and benign. Thus, as part of the goal of understanding the principles of psychological warfare, this work posits the following terms associated with this activity in which modern psychological warfare practitioners operate.

Figure 1: Echelons of Political and Psychological Warfare

Political Warfare: The use of political means to compel an opponent to do one’s will, political being understood to describe purposeful intercourse between peoples and governments affecting national survival.  Political war may be combined with violence, economic pressure, subversion, and diplomacy, but its chief aspect is the use of words, images, and ideas, commonly known, according to context, as propaganda and psychological warfare.[7]

Psychological Warfare: Psychological warfare is the use of operations, actions, and activities with the primary goal of targeting, influencing, and changing the behavior and attitudes of a foreign adversary in an area of declared or potential hostility. Psychological warfare encompasses the use of information, cyber, military, intelligence, and economic components of political warfare. Psychological warfare is a component of political warfare and an interagency activity. Its military component is typically comprised of psychological operations, psychological harassment, and military information support operations.

Psychological Operations: The military application, at the operational and tactical level, of psychological warfare in support of operations in a declared or anticipated area of hostilities under a military command.

Psychological Harassment (PSYHAR): PSYHAR are activities conducted to create time and space for a maneuver elements to operate.  These activities obfuscate US intentions while creating confusion in a variety of target audiences. PSYHAR does not focus on a behavioral outcome. PSYHAR requires the analysis of measures of performance and measures of effects.  The US Military conducted PSYHAR during the Vietnam War to facilitate offensive operations by disrupting enemy’s ability to organize and focus, while allowing for offensive maneuver. 

Civil Authority Information Support: MISO forces execute the CAIS mission as part of defense support of civil authorities (DSCA) when DOD information dissemination capabilities are requested by a lead Federal agency in support of relief operations in the wake of natural and man-made disasters within the geographical area of the United States territories.[8]

Interagency-Intergovernmental Support Operations (ISSO): MISO forces conduct the ISSO mission to support interagency and intergovernmental operations and activities. Interagency-intergovernmental support shapes and influences foreign decision-making and behaviors in support of U.S. regional objectives, policies, interests, theater military plans, and contingencies. Interagency-intergovernmental support is a special operations MISO forces’ mission that leverages their regional and language expertise, planning capability, and media knowledge and capabilities.[9]

Military Deception: PSYOP forces conduct military deception actions executed to deliberately mislead adversary military, paramilitary, or violent extremist organization (VEO) decision makers, thereby causing the adversary to take specific actions (or inactions) that will contribute to the accomplishment of the friendly mission.[10]

These definitions of political and psychological warfare inform a pragmatic and historical understanding of the profession. Unfortunately, as Mr. Linebarger has astutely mentioned, in an attempt to find a prettier label, we have at times diminished the capability of the psychological warfare craft. With a wider understanding of political warfare and psychological warfare, we can now analyze and reconsider our psychological warfare principles. The challenge for psychological warfare is to resist defining the craft into a “palatable” lexicon that inherently limits both the scope and functionality of the craft.

 

Psychological Warfare is the FIRST activity in conflict

William Donovan wrote President Roosevelt in 1942 to clarify the use of psychological operations, stating “the use of propaganda [psychological warfare] is the arrow of initial penetration in coordinating and preparing the people and the territory in which invasion is contemplated. It is the first step [Italics added]—then Fifth Column work, then militarized raiders (or “Commandos”) and then divisions.”[11] He understood that entering any conflict without proper preparation of the environment is generally rendered ineffective. Even Machiavelli wrote, “However strong your armed forces are, in entering a new province you will need the goodwill of the people of the place.”[12] Both strategists understood the concept of psychologically preparing a target for follow-on activities. In a martial organization, we typically view preparation of the environment as a kinetic activity. However, the history of warfare demonstrates with regularity that preparation is a wholly psychological activity. Clausewitz suggests in his example that “moral force has been the chief cause of the decision; after that was given, the loss continued to increase until it reached its culminating point at the close of the whole act.”[13]

Jomini called operations predicated on psychological warfare as “wars of opinion,” or wars focused on ideology and influence.[14] He suggested that a force must first “make a display of a mass of troops proportioned to the obstacles and resistance likely to be encountered, calm the popular passions in every possible way, exhaust them by time and patience, display courtesy, gentleness and severity united, and particularly, deal justly.”[15] Donovan, Jomini, and Clausewitz all acknowledged the importance of psychologically preparing the environment prior to the kinetic phase of an operation. 

China and Russia effectively engage this principle to their advantage in the modern era. Russia demonstrated extensive psychological preparation prior to the invasion of Georgia and the annexation of Crimea. These activities included lengthy influence campaigns and detailed activities to illustrate to the international community a casus belli for military action. Only following in-depth psychological preparations of the battlefield did Russia initiate kinetic activities. Russia followed a defeat-in-detail approach by instituting overwhelming psychological warfare attacks sequenced against weakened population sets. Only after Russia achieved relative superiority on this battlefield did they begin movement of physical troops. China currently uses psychological preparation of the international community to accept: territorial claims in the South China Sea, their treatment of the Uighurs, and economic expansion through the One Belt, One Road initiative. The common thread through all of these activities is that preparation of the battlefield, physical or informational, is first initiated through psychological warfare.

Psychological Warfare is continuous and active

Psychological warfare requires constant, continuous, and active engagement. Holding the preponderance of our military-based influence professionals to the current train, man, and equip cycle hinders national security objectives. The current model for application of psychological operations is akin to a normal line unit like an infantry or Special Forces company and, as such, is antiquated. We must treat psychological warfare professionals more akin to a professional model of an emergency room doctor. We do not keep the doctor in training for months just to perform one surgery. The doctor is continually performing and perfecting their technique in the crucible of the emergency room. Removing psychological warfare personnel and activities from competition for any period of time is a risk to the environment and capabilities of a state.

Conflict in the information age is continuous across time and the digital environment and requires daily engagement to compete. Influence competition is significantly different from martial activities that tend to take a hiatus between wars and conflicts. It is infeasible to keep a Special Forces detachment or infantry platoon in a perpetual state of combat. But, we must always maintain contact in the information environment. This battlefield does not allow for culmination or a Fabian style defense. Hans Spier states, “If the policy is reactive, propaganda is likely to be an uninspired news service, because it lacks any relation to policy objectives.”[16] Reactive operations are inherently not continuous and tend to be discounted prior to dissemination of any message. The media industry coined the term, “if it bleeds, it leads,” reflecting the fact that directive narratives and tropes are more powerful and effective then reactive measures to an adversary’s influence activities. This requires flexible, proactive, and continual planning. The United States executed this principle during the Cold War through the use of the United States Information Agency (USIA). The USIA perpetuated continual communications with a competitors’ population centers. With the deactivation of the USIA in 1999, the U.S. ceded consistent contact with populations to our state and non-state competitors and thus find its communication strategy subject to the whims of a competitive information environment.

Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui state in Unrestricted War that, “with information technology welding the entire world together in a network, the number of factors involved in a war is much, much greater than in past wars… loss of control over any one link can be like the proverbial loss of a horseshoe nail which led to the loss of an entire war.”[17] A relative loss of influence due to a viral Facebook message or Twitter message can translate to a significant strategic gain or loss. To manage these relative gains and losses, influence competition must be continuous. China exercises this principle directly through the use of the 50-Cent Army, which produces over 448 million products a year for social influence.[18] Russia, much like China, uses the Global Research Unit (GRU) to maintain continuous social influence in areas surrounding the Black Sea. Russia uses the strategy of Maskirovka, or “a little masquerade,” to spin continuous narratives, obscuring the state’s strategic aims. Russian strategy is to conduct nonstop influence campaigns targeting fissures in the U.S.’s inability to keep pace in the information environment.[19] 

Psychological Warfare produces effects in the “real” world

The United States military is infatuated with the advent of cyber warfare and social media activities. These platforms and emerging domains provide faster access to target audiences and increased capabilities for nations and non-nation state actors to bypass state defenses.  Inasmuch as these domains are novel and vogue in a military context, they also must be placed in the correct frame of reference. Regardless of how many social media posts and e-mails are delivered to a target audience, if they do not provide a tangible and measurable result, then our goal has not been accomplished. Disseminating television and radio commercials, or just memes, is merely dissemination of information, not the effective goal of psychological warfare. Only when psychological warfare produces “real world” effects does it transition into a weapon of strategy. It is in the realm of effects-based results that psychological warfare exists. Like daily e-mails from the Nigerian Prince promising riches, it has no effect unless the individual participates in the scheme. This is the same of psychological operations; effective influence campaigns require not only participation, but also calculable, effects-based outcomes.

Hans Speier, the German-American sociologist, argues that a change in attitudes and private opinions amounts to little if that change fails to result in “deviant, politically relevant behavior.”[20] Encouraging the Afghan population to destroy and cease growing poppy and marijuana is meaningless if the political goal of a stable Afghanistan is unmet due to the population unable feed themselves. All this approach has achieved is almost twenty years of Afghans ignoring America’s central argument and a resulting increase in drug production. 

The target audience dictates TIME in psychological warfare

One common phrase uttered by psychological warfare professionals is “behavior change takes time.” PSYOP soldiers often utter this phrase in consternation to commanders who are attempting achieving results in the real world. This phrase does nothing to help convince leaders of psychological warfare efficacy. Why should a commander care about the psychological aspect of conflict if their force redeploys before effects are measured? The current paradigm is ineffective and misleading. The target audience is the force that dictates or reflects behavioral decisions and effects, not the arbitrary timeframe of the psychological warfare campaign. Psychological warfare personnel must account for the pace of the target audience’s behavioral change in their planning process. By understanding the timeframe constraining a behavior, we introduce plans capable of creating psychological effects that are temporally acceptable to a decision maker.

Behavior change in a target audience results from a mixture of prospect theory and time discounting. Prospect theory describes how a target audience understands their ability to make decisions based on credible outcomes and risk. Time discounting defines an audience’s preference to a current value over a perceived greater future outcome. Members of a target audience must analyze their ability to act in an environment in order to determine the risk of taking a new behavior. Any behavior that currently satisfices, or is sufficient enough to meet the desire of the individual, will be preferable to a behavior that might improve their situation in the future. Thus, a psychological operation is predicated on a matrix of factors that take into account the manipulation of an individual’s desired outcomes, the risk that the target audience will continue its current behavior, and the risk of the target audience not engaging in the desired behavior over a specific time period. Psychological operations are designed to change a behavior; it is always ultimately a sparring match between adjusting the behavioral economics of the target audience and achieving results within the available time allotted to a psychological activity.

Psychological warfare is the tool used to manipulate the behavior of a target audience within an acceptable timeframe. As the theories of bounded rationality and satisficing suggest, it is always up to the target audience to decide how much pressure is enough to force a behavioral change. In some cases, it may be as simple as removing environmental limitations. In other cases, it involves adding limitations in the environment until the audience is uncomfortable with taking any other behavior than that of the desired one. It is up to the psychological warfare expert to understand the target audience’s timeframe for behavioral change and how best to manipulate this for operational effectiveness, or if it can be done within the limitations of the military planning cycle.

Everything is a Tool in Psychological Warfare

Linebarger suggests there is a difference between psychological warfare and warfare psychologically waged. In the former, political considerations are the driving construct, with psychological warfare achieving the political goals. In the latter, all warfare is targeting a psychological objective with effects directed at breaking the will and desire of the opponent to continue fighting.[21] In both cases, all tools of the state’s disposal are a weapon for the psychological fight. Michael Schaad suggests in his thesis “More Effective Warfare: Warfare Waged Psychologically,” that warfare primarily waged in the psychological field, with kinetic actions as the supporting effort, leads to “hastening a conflict to termination,” greater credibility afforded to the warfare narrative, and greater ease in achieving political outcomes.[22] To conduct psychological warfare or warfare psychologically waged requires the use of all tools in the state’s arsenal.

The CIA’s 1954 overthrow of the Arbenez regime in Guatemala during PBSSUCCES demonstrates the successful manipulation of all the tools of the state to achieve mission success. Starting with PBFORTUNE, the CIA injected weapons and money into Guatemala to increase the perception of a resistance movement. Relying on approximately 480 Soldiers, the US overemphasized the capability and size of the resistance movement. Planners developed leaflets and other physical propaganda to support the campaign objectives. The Navy conducted a blockade of Guatemala to limit trade, causing strain on the economy, and ultimately a psychological effect. Fake bombs and death threats to communists, to include the sending of wooden coffins and nooses to political leaders, isolated members of the Arbenez government. Radio transmission from the Voice of Liberation supported the growing insurgency in Guatemala. Small planes dropped low yield explosives to scare leaders in the capitol of a pending invasion force. Although the Arbenez government was well prepared to defeat the insurgent force, the psychologically waged warfare turned the population against the government, strained Arbenez’s resources, destroyed the will of the military force, and eventually forced his resignation and asylum in Mexico.

Psychological warfare elements must expand the use and application of all forms of actions and activities in support of psychological objectives. While the majority of individuals outside the psychological warfare community conceptualize their capability as leaflet disseminators, loudspeaker troopers, and radio-in-a-box disc jockeys, this hardly covers the multitude of activities required in the craft. Vietnam’s Sacred Sword of the Patriot’s League demonstrated the use of physical coercion and manipulation. Korean and Vietnamese PSYOP demonstrated the used of kinetic weapons for psychological effect. Iraq and Afghanistan revealed the use of civil support activities as forms of psychological preparation of target populations. Bombs, bridges, and books are all tools in the psychological warfare profession.

Psychological Warfare Occurs at all Echelons

In December 1942, the United States created the Army’s first psychological warfare units, the 1st and 2nd Radio Service Sections.[23] This organization of three officer and thirty-nine soldiers heralded the beginning of what we now consider tactical psychological operations. The Radio Service Sections focused on radio broadcast, loudspeaker operations, trained linguists, and a dedicated approach to the tactical application of the craft. The Army primarily utilized the Sections on a tactical level, but Donavan envisioned a larger role for propaganda and psychological warfare within the Office of Strategic Services and under the Joint Psychological Warfare Committee (JPWC).[24] In February 1944, General Eisenhower identified the need for a psychological warfare capability at the theater level to handle the operational effects of influence, and created the Psychological Warfare Division, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force (PWD/SHAEF). He understood the need to bring together the multitude of joint military influence capabilities underneath a singular banner at the operational level.

Following the Second World War, the United States developed multiple organizations to conduct propaganda, both at home and abroad. Currently, we array the majority of this behavioral influence capability under Psychological Operations. This was not the original concept for psychological warfare, and for good reason. McClure, Donovan, and other early leaders in psychological warfare understood there was a difference between the manning, training, and execution of influence operations. Early models of psychological warfare were both stratified and horizontally integrated into a joint and interagency collective. Executive Directive 100.4-PSB/4-451 in 1951 directed the Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, and Director of the CIA to coordinate and conduct psychological operations under the establishment of a Psychological Strategy Board (PSB).[25] President Truman directed the PSB to assume an interagency approach to national psychological objectives, policies, and programs, and to coordinate a national psychological effort to deter foreign aggression. The Psychological Strategy Board authors posited that efforts cannot be left to just to the competence of our psychological operations specialists. An interagency effort with vertical integration through a civilian managed organization would be required to compete with Russia in the Cold War.[26]

The current model for nation’s main psychological warfare capability is sub-delegated underneath the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict (ASD-SO/LIC), where the nation’s main influence component is the smallest element and listed last in the office’s focal efforts. Even within USASOC 2035’s lines-of-effort, hostage rescue and direct action remains the first priority. Influence activities are listed in neither near-term nor mid-term priorities, and they comprise only two of the thirty-five efforts.[27]  The Cold War focus, or Great Power Competition, has relegated psychological warfare influence efforts to a supporting function to the nation’s hard power strategy. There is a strong argument to be made that neither Donovan nor McClure would understand or agree with the current structure of psychological warfare influence.

Psychological Warfare is unrestricted

This paper provides some clarification on psychological warfare that widens the scope and theory of its application. Psychological warfare is a tool of the state that bridges all of our DIME capabilities. In this, we acknowledge that psychological warfare is unrestricted in all domains. Psychological warfare as a diplomatic function provides an execution arm for national strategic objectives. In the informational dimension, psychological warfare operates to change attitudes and behaviors of target audiences. The military domain is where the majority of our psychological warfare capabilities reside. While this is the primary source of psychological warfare professionals, this craft is not the exclusive domain of the military. Organizations such as the United States Information Agency (USIA) and the Global Engagement Center (GEC) extend interagency control over psychological capabilities for the state. Finally, in the economic domain, psychological warfare has been used in dollar diplomacy and through the use of the International Monetary Fund to influence the behaviors of friendly and competitive states. On operational-level objectives we see the use of counter threat finance operations to influence the attitudes and behaviors of foreign entities. Therefore, psychological warfare cannot be constrained and must be able to maximize the use of all state resources and domains.

So, to conduct psychological warfare, we see that everything is a tool and that it maintains no bounds as a craft. This brings up a significant challenge—how do you train, man, and equip for activities that are so wide and encompassing and at the same time, ensure you don’t overwhelm your resources? The Second World War provides a perfect example of form and function of a state’s capacity for psychological warfare, namely the government-employed civilian capabilities that met the requirements for specified functions. The U.S. military maintained a semblance of this model up to 2006, when both the active and reserve psychological operations units were maintained under the same command. Since this date, the military has placed a wall between the civil skillsets available in the Army Reserve and the government military capacity from an active duty force. This challenges the force since the craft per se is interdisciplinary. We see intersections of economics, psychology, sociology, anthropology, political science, math, and biology providing inputs into planning and execution of this critical capability. The make-up of a psychological warfare campaign must take into account all of these different aspects during planning and execution. Streamlining a singular educational pathway and myopic understanding of influence will lead us to repetitive and iterative activities with little chance for effective behavioral change. Thus, we cannot restrict the training or application of psychological warfare into an assembly line of producing units and activities. To meet the demands of psychological warfare, practitioners need to diversify their organizational capacity and educational backgrounds. Diversity in psychological warfare is critical to effective operations.

Conclusion

In the conduct of psychological warfare sight must never be lost of the fact that a change in attitudes and private opinions amounts to little if it fails to result in deviant, politically relevant behavior.[28]

These principles of psychological warfare are a guide for operations and activities that desire to create behavioral and attitudinal change in foreign audiences. The guiding principles focus on creating tangible behaviors that support policy and objectives of the state. The goal of this document is to give planners and practitioners some guidelines for application of influence-based activities. It is also to place psychological warfare back into the forefront for planning operations. Defeating an enemy armor battalion, injecting a computer virus into a competitor’s network, or negotiating a bilateral agreement all bring about benefits. But, the peak of the U.S.’s capability will always be to influence a foreign nation to align their behaviors and attitudes in-line with our ideas of freedom, liberty, and justice.

Additional theoretical contribution provided by CPT Jason Lee, Operations Officer, Charlie Company, 5th Psychological Operations Battalion (Airborne). 

 The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the US Government.

Publié le Catégories Réseaux sociaux

🔵⚪🔴 Staatspreis Modern Schulen – Die Prime 18 stehen fest – Stratégie Réseaux Sociaux


Die Vorjury wählte aus insgesamt 191 Einreichungen ihre 18 Favoriten aus. Die Hauptjury kürt nun die sechs Finalisten.

Vienne (OTS) Neun Schulqualitätsmanagerinnen und -supervisor der Bildungsdirektionen beurteilten im Tandem mit Mitarbeiterinnen und Mitarbeitern der Agentur für Bildung und Internationalisierung (OeAD) jeweils rund 20 Einreichungen basierend auf fünf Qualitätskategorien. 18 Schulen konnten die Jury besonders überzeugen und sind nun im Rennen um die sechs Finalplätze und ein Preisgeld von insgesamt 100.000 Euro.

„Die Qualität der 191 Einreichungen war durchwegs sehr hoch, ein Beweis für die Fülle an innovativen, engagierten Schulen in Österreich,“ ainsi die einhellige Meinung der Vorjury-Mitglieder.

Die besten 18 Einreichungen zum Staatspreis Innovative Schulen 2020/21 im Überblick

In den Statements erklärt die Vorjury, welche Besonderheiten für die Bewertung ausschlaggebend waren:

• Bezauer Wirtschaftsschulen – Schulleitung: Mario Hammerer (Vorarlberg)
„Die Bezauer Wirtschaftsschulen umfassen vier besondere Schultypen:
eine Handelsakademie mit Schwerpunkt Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie & E-Business, eine in Österreich einzigartige Werkraumschule (Handelsschule mit Zusatzangebot des Bregenzerwälder Handwerks), eine Höhere Lehranstalt für Tourismus mit 5 Sprachenchenchecht (die Höhere Lehranstalt für Tourismus mit 5 Sprachenchenchecht (inkl. einer Hotelfachschule und einer zusätzlichen Lehre). Alle vier Schultypen eint neben innovativen Zugängen vor allem der praxisorientierte Unterricht.

• BHAK / BHAS Bregenz – Schulleitung: Manfred Hämmerle (Vorarlberg) „Die BHAK / BHAS Bregenz lebt als Schule der Vielfalt Inklusion und Chancengleichheit in vielen Facetten. Neben innovativen Lehrmethoden nehmen an dieser Schule vor allem auch die systematische Reflexion und Weiterentwicklung des Unterrichtes einen hohen Stellenwert ein.

• BHAK / BHAS Lustenau – Schulleitung: Johann Scheffknecht (Vorarlberg) „Die BHAK / BHAS Lustenau geht innovant Wege, um Chancengerechtigkeit zu fördern und eine inklusive Schulkultur zu schaffen, die einen wertschätzachenämg Migrationsgeschichten aus 22 Ländern) vermittelt und neue Zugänge umsetzt, diesen wertschätzenden Umgang mit Vielfalt als Institution zu leben und die Potentiale aller Schülerinnen und Schüler zu fördern. »

• BHAK und BHAS Wien 10 – Schulleitung: Jörg Hopfgartner (Wien) „Die„ bunte “Schule im sozial schwierigen Umfeld als beneficial Ressource und Possibility zu nutzen ist an der BHAK und BHAS Wien 10 eine Selbstverständlichkeit. Die Betonung des Zusammenlebens und voneinander Lernens der unterschiedlichen Kulturen im sozial schwierigen Umfeld ist ein wichtiger Eckpfeiler der Arbeit. »

• Bildungsanstalt für Elementarpädagogik (BAfEP) De La Salle – Schulleitung: Brigitte Cizek (Wien)
„Rund um die SELFIEPädagogik, die das Herzstück darstellt, konnte ein Program von innovativer Pädagogik und nachhaltigem Qualitätsmanagement aufgebaut werden. Die Idee scheint die gesamte Schulgemeinschaft zu durchdringen. »

• PTS / FMS15 – Schulleitung: Beatrix Poppe (Wien)
„Die FMS 15 in Wien ist eine Polytechnische Schule mit einer äußerst herausfordernden Ausgangslage: Mit wenig Mitteln, aber umso mehr kreativen und innovativen Ideen, versucht die Schule gemeinsam mit ihren Schülerinnen und Schülernass düstluten düstälten et de Schülägen düstätung dans ihr Berufsleben haben bzw. befähigt werden, eine weitere Schullaufbahn einzuschlagen. Durch den persönlichen Einsatz der Lehrkräfte, werden Kurse angeboten, die auch Berufswege eröffnen, die im „traditionellen“ Sinn eventuell nicht bedacht worden wären. “

• GIBS, École bilingue internationale de Graz – Schulleitung: Edda Berger-Cian (Steiermark)
„Das Besondere an der GIBS – École bilingue internationale de Graz -sind ua die cross-curicularen Projekte, die in verschiedenen Fächern zeitgleich unterrichtet werden, sowie in den späteren Jahrgängen die Wahlpflichtfächer. Somit kann sehr individuell auf Interessen und Begabungen der Schülerinnen und Schüler eingegangen werden. »

• Hertha Firnberg Schulen für Wirtschaft und Tourismus – Schulleitung: Maria Ettl (Vienne)
„Um Chancengleichheit wird mit allen Mitteln gerungen. Innovative Unterrichtsmodelle, ebenso wie Kooperationen mit der Fachhochschule, Förderung der Teamarbeit ebenso wie evidenzbasiertes Qualitätsmanagement prägen die Hertha Firnberg Schule. »

• HTL Wolfsberg – Schulleitung: Jürgen Jantschgi (Kärnten) „Die HTL Wolfsberg definiert vier strategische Entwicklungsthemen als substantiell: Digitalisierung / Field 4. – Entrepreneuriat Education and learning 4. – Energie / Umweltnachhaltigkeit – Gesundheit. Voraussetzung für deren Umsetzung sind modern ausgestattete Werkstätten und Labore, noch mehr aber engagierte Lehrkräfte, die mit exzellentem Fachwissen ihre Begeisterung an die Lernenden weitergeben. »

• iPadschule iMS Jennersdorf – Schulleitung: Hannes Thomas (Burgenland)
„Die erste iPad Schule Österreichs zeichnet sich durch aktuelles und nachhaltiges Know-how im Bereich Technik aus und bereitet ihre Schülerinnen und Schüler mit einem ausgereiften, kreativen und abgestimmten pädagogischen Konzept to die Zukunft.

• Musik- und Informatikmittelschule Wendtstattgasse (MIM) – Schulleitung: Sabine Prohaska (Vienne)
„Der Musikmittelschule und Informatikmittelschule MIM Wien ist es gelungen, sich innerhalb von zwei Jahren von einer„ Brennpunktschule “zu einer innovativen und kreativen Schule zu entwickeln. Die Schule hat sich auf den Weg gemacht, will etwas bewirken und ihren bereits begonnenen Weg konsequent weitergehen. Mit ihren Angeboten wollen sie nicht nur den Standort attraktiver für die Schülerinnen und Schüler gestalten, sondern auch die Schule als Ort des Miteinanders für den Bezirk positionieren. Die Pläne für die Zukunft lassen viel Ein potentiel: Ein “Innovation LAB” mit einer Technikumgebung der Zukunft ist das Ziel, in dem neue methodisch-didaktische Szenarien erprobt werden dürfen und auch der Vernetzung mit den Volksschulen dienen soll.

• ORG Dachsberg – Schulleitung: P. Ferdinand Karer (Oberösterreich) „Diese Schule besticht durch das innovant FLEX-Procedure, bei dem sich die Schülerinnen und Schüler 20 Prozent ihrer Unterrichtszeit individuell einteilen können. Beeindruckt haben uns aber auch der Drang nach ständiger evidenzbasierter Weiterentwicklung, die starke Einbindung von Schülerinnen und Schülern und Eltern in das Schulleben, zahlreiche Kooperationen und die vielfältigen Veranstaltungen der Schule auf hohem Niveau. Donc etwas ist nur umsetzbar, wenn alle an einem Strang ziehen und dieser Geist war in der gesamten Einreichung deutlich spürbar.

• Österreichische Auslandsschule Liechtenstein – Schulleitung: Eva Meirer (Auslandsschule)
„Die Österreichische Auslandsschule Liechtenstein verfolgt seit 2017 einen intensiven Schulentwicklungsprozess mit sehr innovativen Ansätzen, wie z. B. der Entwicklung eines hybriden Lernmodells für das Oberstufengymnasium. Im Fokus des Handelns steht dabei immer das lebenslange Lernen.

• Praxismittelschule PH Wien – Schulleitung: Matthias Bischoff (Wien) „An der Praxismittelschule der Pädagogische Hochschule Wien spielen innovant Lehrmethoden und eigenverantwortliches Lernen eine große Rolle. Auch die Stärkung demokratischer Werte und digitaler Kompetenzen sowie eine intense Sprachförderung zeichnen diese Schule besonders aus.

• «Schule am See» – Mittelschule und VS Tricky – Schulleitung:
Christian Grabher (Vorarlberg)
„In der Schule am See werden Schülerinnen und Schüler jahrgangsübergreifend unterrichtet und das sogar an der Schnittstelle Volksschule und Mittelschule. Dabei setzt die Schule besonders auf freie Lernzeiten in Lernbüros, wobei ein modernes Schulgebäude für das wissenschaftlich evaluierte Unterrichtskonzept errichtet wurde. Dass sich die Schule dem Ziel der Chancengerechtigkeit verschrieben hat, belegen die Heterogenität der Schülerinnen und Schüler und die Inklusion von Kindern mit besonderen Bedürfnissen, anderer Erstsprachen und Hochbegabungen. Ein mutiges Beispiel, das zeigt, était innerhalb der gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen schon alles möglich ist! »

• Schop79 Mittelschule Währing – Schulleitung: Erika Tiefenbacher (Vienne)
„Die Mittelschule Schop 79 im 18. Bezirk in Wien beeindruckt durch die konsequente Umsetzung ihres Leitbildes‚ Faktor I:
Identität-Interkulturalität-Integration ».
Von umfassender Entrepreneurship Instruction und Sprachlicher Bildung über intense Elternzusammenarbeit, nachhaltige Förderung von Gesundheit und sozialem Engagement bis hin zu e-Coaches für digitales Lernen und einem umfangreichen Netzwerk an Spouse Organizationen aus Kitätivärchätungen. “

• Volksschule Gratwein – Schulleitung: Sabine John (Steiermark) „Die Schule zeichnet sich durch zahlreiche innovant Konzepte und Ansätze aus. Ein positiver Umgang miteinander steht im Zentrum. Individualisierung, Förderung der Kreativität, Feedbackkultur und Stärkung der Selbstmotivation und Selbstreflexion werden in den Fokus gestellt. Favourable Elternarbeit, die Berücksichtigung von ökologischen Aspekten, kontinuierliche Leistungsrückmeldung (ua in Kind kriterialer Leistungsbeurteilung), die Implementierung außerschulischer Lernorte, regelmäßige Besprechildungen.

• Wirtschafts.Akademie.Waldviertel BHAK Gmünd / Horn / Waidhofen / Zwettl – Schulleitung: Cordula Krammer, Peter Hofbauer, Rudolf Mayer, Manfred Schnabl (Niederösterreich)
„Die vier miteinander kooperierenden Standorte beweisen, wie ein abgestimmtes und gemeinsames Angebot im Sinne von„ Modern day Business Educational institutions “zur Sicherung der wichtigen Kernkompetenzen bei Schülerinnen und Schülern und Eines auf die Region angepassten Konzepts möglich.

Die Mitglieder der Vorjury

Aus den Bildungsdirektionen: Ingrid Manage (Tirol), Renate Kanovsky-Wintermann (Kärnten), Friedrich Losek (Niederösterreich), Johannes Lugstein (Salzburg), Juliane Müller (Steiermark), Nikolaus Schermann (Burgenland), Susanne Speckegabger (Vorarlberg) (Oberösterreich), Horst Tschaikner (Vienne)

Vom OeAD: Sirikit Amann, Katrin Bernhardt, Ulrike Gießner-Bogner, Franz Gramlinger, Sabine Müller, Monika Mott, Ursula Panuschka, Martin Prinz, Petra Siegele

Wie geht es weiter?

Die Hauptjury steht nun vor der Aufgabe, aus den 18 bestplatzierten Schulen die sechs Finalistinnen für den Staatspreis Modern Schulen auszuwählen. Diese sollen bis Juni feststehen. Die Verkündung der Siegerschule sowie die feierliche Verleihung des Staatspreises Modern Schulen wird am 21. septembre im Rahmen des Activities „Ideen – Projekte – Chancen: Wir entwickeln Schule“ durch Bundesminister Heinz Faßmann und den Stiftungsvorstand derationsildungiftung für Stiftungsvorstand derationsungiftung für Bürnberg.

Über den Staatspreis Modern Schulen

Der Staatspreis Revolutionary Schulen wird im Schuljahr 2020/21 erstmals gemeinsam vom BMBWF und der Innovationsstiftung für Bildung ausgeschrieben. Ziel ist es, innovant Schulentwicklung in den Fokus zu rücken und zu fördern und dabei jene Schulen auszuzeichnen, die mit Hilfe innovativer Zukunftskonzepte die Qualitätsvorgaben des Bildungsressorts nur erigengregreich umsetorzen, sondenchärätern.
Prämiert werden die sechs besten Einreichungen. Der erste Platz est disponible pour 50.000 euros, pour les finalistes et pour les finalistes pour 10.000 euros.

Die Vergabe des Staatspreises erfolgt auf Vorschlag einer Jury von Expertinnen und Experten, die in einem zweistufigen Prozess die sechs besten Einreichungen identifiziert und diese Schulen im Zuge von Onlineveranstaltungen zur Entscheidungsfindung virtuellen besuchen.

Detaillierte Informationen zum Staatspreis Modern Schulen finden Sie unter: www.innovativeschulen.at

Rückfragen et Kontakt:

BM für Bildung, Wissenschaft und Forschung
Magazine. Bouton Debora
Pressesprecherin
01 53120-5026
debora.knob@bmbwf.gv.at

Innovationsstiftung für Bildung
Magazine. Dr Katrin Bernhardt
Projektmanagerin
01 53408-121
katrin.bernhardt@oead.at
www.innovationsstiftung-bildung.at

Publié le Catégories Réseaux sociaux

🔵⚪🔴 How to Plan a Social Media Content Calendar (2021) – Stratégie Réseaux Sociaux


Have you ever been in awe when looking at one of your favorite brand’s mastery of social media strategy?

One of the most important challenges of social media management is keeping up the pace of publication while forming a coherent story with your posts. The frequency at which some brands post on social media makes you wonder how large their social media team might be and how they’ve still kept their communication coherent.

The answer to that question is, of course, organization. And one of the best ways to organize social media communications is by using a social media content calendar.


Benefits of creating a social media content calendar

Setting up a content calendar helps organize and automate parts of the social media management process. This frees up time so the social media team can concentrate on more valuable tasks like user engagement, trend detection, and ideation.

Some will even go so far as to fully automate publications from a content calendar, which puts their baseline social media communications on autopilot.

Some of the benefits of using a content calendar are:

1. Help you keep the pace

Maintaining an optimal publication frequency on social networks can be challenging. While you feel you are publishing as much as you can, perhaps the ideal frequency is actually higher. The frequency should be based on audience needs and objectives rather than available resources. Automation and planning will help bridge the gap.

2. Build and balance your brand story

One of the most common pitfalls in social media management is to publish only promotional content. This backfires quite quickly, or rather it doesn’t “fire” at all: Your following doesn’t increase, users don’t engage, and your reach is disappointingly low.

The opposite is also true: A second social media pitfall is to publish no promotional or commercial content whatsoever, and as such, build a lot of engagement and visibility, but generate no revenue.

The social media calendar helps you find the balance between promotional content, news, and affinity content. It is also your storytelling tool, allowing you to use multiple posts in time to help unfold the story your brand is telling.The content calendar is the only way to manage the time dimension of your brand story.

3. Synchronize communication calendars with SEO, PR, events, and advertising

Synchronizing communication and marketing tactics across the various communication channels can be a real challenge. PR and event marketing initiatives can be included in the calendar, and when marketing campaigns are running, their commercial or promotional content can be considered in the communication mix.

The social media editorial calendar will be the place to coordinate this, and via these synchronization mechanisms, social media becomes an integral plan of the marketing plan.

4. Efficiently use your resources

Whether you are planning the resources of a social media team or trying to juggle your time between marketing, sales, and communication, you will necessarily have time and resource constraints. Creating a social media content plan helps identify the workload ahead of time, set aside both time and resources for content creation, and avoid destructive, last minute panic maneuvers.

Did you think social media was spontaneous and catching the gist of the moment? It can be, but only when time has been set aside for spontaneity, because all the running tasks were planned and freed up the time you dedicate to the moment at hand.

5. Track and measure impact

When a content calendar is built around topics, themes, and hashtags, its design reflects your objectives. This makes setting up tracking and reporting on impact much easier. The content calendar itself will reflect the structure of your reporting goals.


How to make a social media calendar

Any social media content strategy should result in a social media content calendar. But how do you make it? Grab a tool and fill in the blanks? Not quite.

First, you will need to understand your audience, identify your topics and messaging, find existing content, and create what is missing. Then you need to connect these elements with the nature and constraints of the social media platform you are targeting.

Was your social media content strategy already clear when you started the process? If not, this is the time to make it concrete and tangible, and also set up workflows and integrate with publication tools. Creating a social media calendar is the backbone of your social media strategy.

Step 1: Define your audience

Defining your audience is likely something you have already done. If not, you will need to figure out your target audience in order to perform some of the subsequent steps of selecting social networks and defining themes and topics.

For social media, the best way to define your audience is to build personas. These are stereotypical representations of key segments of your audiences that depict their pain points, their desires, their preferred communication channels and media consumption, and their demographic profile.

Tips for defining your audience:

There are at least three sources for defining your audiences: the target client you defined in your marketing plan, the data you have on your existing clients and prospects, and the data you can obtain from online media platforms.

  • Explore your audiences in “analytics”: If you have Google Analytics installed on your website, you may have activated audience segmentation. It’s worth noting that this could have implications for your cookie settings, your privacy policy, and your compliance with the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). If activated, this data will give you details on what your website’s audience characteristics are.
  • Social media audience insights: Social media platforms like Facebook and Twitter give you access to audience insights regarding your fans and followers as compared to the general audience on these sites.
  • Audience discovery: Certain advertising platforms will allow you to collect data from your website by inserting a tag for a limited period of time to profile users of your website. Again, be careful with legal implications and cookie consent if going this route.

Step 2: Identify your topics and hashtags

Once you know who your audience is, you need to define what topics they are interested in, and what topics you are interested in sharing with them. The more interesting your content is to your audience, the better your social media communications will perform.

Identifying the right hashtags that go with the topics will allow you to reach audiences beyond your immediate circles of influence, and thus expand reach with a guaranteed high affinity with your topics.

Tips for identifying topics and hashtags:

If you define your audience via personas, you will have already identified some of the topics they are interested in. When searching for the corresponding hashtags, you can expand your topical coverage by looking at associated hashtags.

  • Build your list of hashtags: When building out your topics, spend some time researching the reach of your hashtags. This will be useful on Twitter, Instagram, and Pinterest and increasingly on LinkedIn and Facebook also.
  • The dichotomy of hashtags: When choosing hashtags, there are two things to keep in mind. First, the hashtag you are including should be closely associated with your content and have an explanatory function when a user reads your post. Secondly, the hashtag should open the door to affinity audiences that follow or use the hashtag in significant numbers. You can look up hashtags and see to what extent they are used.

Step 3: Select your social media channels

Perhaps your audience research shows you directly what channel your audience is using. This will be an important piece of information for building strength in that channel.

When selecting your social media channels, you should aim to define your primary and secondary social media channels, as well as those you may not be focusing on in the short term. Select these channels by evaluating how present and engaged your audience is on each social network.

Tips for selecting social media channels:

Selecting the right social media channel for your communications is a strategic choice. You will need to select the primary channel, which allows you to reach the largest possible part of your target audience.

  • Facebook is not just friends and family: Facebook is probably the largest social media communication channel, and it would be a mistake to consider it for personal matters only. Both B2C and B2B companies can obtain great results from their communication on Facebook.
  • Some formats fit some channels: Whereas Facebook can have many functions, there is some specialization in social networks. LinkedIn is more professional, Snapchat is younger, Twitter is more real-time, and Instagram is real-time and very visual.

Step 4: Audit your content and find content gaps

Content auditing sounds complex but it can sometimes take the form of brainstorming. Gather a few people around a table and ask yourselves: What content do we have? The objective of the content audit is to identify the available contents and formats.

Tips for content auditing:

With a content audit, you will build a repository or an overview of all the content available. It will subsequently allow you to identify content gaps you need to fill. Organizing the content in a repository will allow you to easily link to the content in the content calendar.

  • Look in your Dropbox: A good starting point is your Dropbox or Google Drive or even the structure of libraries on your hard disk.
  • Content is not just text and images: Content can have many forms and origins. Data and process documentation can both be content.
  • Be creative: Open your mind and be creative. If you are missing content, perhaps users can generate valuable content to include in your plan.

Step 5: Define publication frequencies to reach your goals

One of the less obvious yet essential steps in building a content calendar is defining publication frequencies. Ideally, these should allow you to reach the marketing key performance indicators (KPIs) you set to track in your marketing analytics.

However, at the outset, the required frequency may be difficult to estimate. It will be important in this step to focus on what is right for the audience and what makes sense on the social networks you’re using, instead of basing your estimates on what resources are available.

Tips for publication frequencies:

Often, the right frequency for posting is higher than you would expect. While posts may have a longer lifespan on Instagram and Pinterest, they practically disappear shortly after publication on Facebook and Twitter.

  • Look at the competition: It is always a good idea to check out your competition, as long as you don’t become blinded by it. Figuring out their publication frequency can be an interesting piece of evidence for defining your own.
  • Estimate reach: On the basis of your historical reach of publication, it should be fairly easy to calculate how many publications would be necessary to reach your goal.

Step 6: Fill in the calendar a month ahead

Lastly, it’s time to fill in the actual social media content planner. You can start with a piece of paper for each social network — an overview of the week — and then insert the hashtags for each topic, theme, or event.

Quite quickly, you should move from this paper version into an online tool for managing the calendar, and try to build the outline for the month to come. For each publication spot, you will find the content that corresponds to the theme, give it a title, and link to existing resources or to a task list for content creation.

Tips for filling the content calendar:

Once your frequencies are established, actually filling in the calendar will require a bit of analysis on the best time to post to social media. If you already have a publication history, consult your analytics data and social media statistics. If not, you need to consult your customer personas and imagine what their days look like, and when they will be receptive to your messages.

  • Differentiate: Did you discover that your competitor publishes at set times? Maybe you should consider publishing before them, or at times well apart from their schedule.
  • Establish habits: Perhaps you can create a weekly habit. Have you heard of Crawling Mondays, Tracking Tuesdays, or Want-to-know-Wednesdays? This is a good way to make an audience loyal to content and aware of a frequency.

The best social media management software for creating a content calendar

The most important function a social media calendar provides is an overview of your strategy.

Social media management software can offer additional functionality for your calendar: direct publication, integrated content repository, integrated tracking and reporting, and even content creation workflow management. Software suites for managing this whole spectrum are well suited for enterprise-level social media teams.

There are also other tools will allow you to cover the calendar function itself. You already use a few of them, such as Microsoft Excel and perhaps Google Calendar! You can easily search online to find free templates for social media calendars that can be set up in these tools.

A lot of content calendar tools allow you to integrate your social media posting schedule directly with your social media profiles. In this manner, the calendar becomes an execution tool. If this is not the case, the function of the calendar should be to organize the work, and provide all the necessary information for the social media executive to do their job.

Here are some of the best social media management software solutions for managing a content calendar.

1. ContentCal

The baseline approach for ContentCal is “Plan and create and then sit back and relax as ContentCal posts to your social networks.” The calendar is the central element in this tool, which also has a neat functionality called the Pinboard, where you can draft content and drag-and-drop it to your calendar.

The tool can publish directly to a limited range of social media profiles, including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, and LinkedIn, but a tool like Zapier allows for more integration.

ContentCal social calendar view of scheduled social media posts with text and image preview.

The calendar view in ContentCal shows all scheduled weekly social posts.

The individual account on ContentCal is among the least expensive tools on the market. ContentCal provides a 14-day free trial and charges $17 per month for an individual account.

2. Buffer

There is a lot to like about Buffer. It is a fantastic social media publishing tool with an intelligible dashboard and simple set-up process. It also has a good-looking social media calendar overview, where posts can be entered and scheduled for publication.

Buffer illustration of a laptop connecting to social media platforms with a button prompting the user to set up their account.

Buffer easily connects with your social network profiles.

There is a free version of Buffer that allows you to connect up to three social networks and schedule a limited number of posts; it’s a great place to start. The Pro account, at $12 per month for one user, connects to eight social media accounts, which should be plenty for solo users and small businesses.

3. Hootsuite

Hootsuite is a great all-round option for social media management and it even offers a free account level for limited usage. It sets the pace for social media management tools. The central screen for Hootsuite shows the streams of posts on the various social networks, while the calendar view is more closely connected to the publication schedule.

Hootsuite dashboard showing various Twitter feeds.

The view of streams within Hootsuite.

There is a free account option, which connects to three social networks and allows 30 scheduled posts a month. The Professional account is $29 per month, allowing you to connect to 10 social profiles.


Your content calendar is now ready to make you shine on social media

Once your social media content calendar is in place, you will have concentrated all your planning work as a monthly task built in advance. Managing it will require a bit of monitoring, especially of notifications to detect anomalies quickly and take corrective actions. Publications will additionally generate data and engagement.

An excellent social media team will learn from the data to improve the next months’ content plan and will continuously engage with users to win hearts and boost reach.

The time you won by organizing and planning can now be used to focus on trending topics and real-time communication to create the sense that your social media team is omnipresent and always available.

Publié le Catégories Réseaux sociaux

🔵⚪🔴 Within the ‘digital cleanse’ organizations having on cancel tradition – Stratégie Réseaux Sociaux


Gary Lineker is describing his 3 rules of Twitter use. “I under no circumstances tweet when I have had a consume. I by no means tweet if I’m angry… And the 3rd 1 is that when I do a tweet, I go through it again to myself and if I have even a one per cent doubt about it then I won’t write-up it. Unless I feel it’s seriously amusing and then I may possibly.”

The former footballer, broadcaster and prolific Twitter user’s caution is symptomatic of a new electronic culture in which one negative tweet can get you fired. In the febrile entire world of social-media activism, our experienced, personal and even romantic profiles are now routinely combed for crumbs of controversial material. This is a world in which all people – from actors and tv personalities to politicians, CEOs and regular citizens – can be “cancelled” right away.

We dwell in unforgiving times. As soon as any form of swiftly considered-out notion, uncomfortable photograph or drunken attempt at humour has been committed to the internet, it becomes aspect of an indelible history of our life. Current months have viewed a host of cancellations, or attempted ones. The longtime host of television show The Bachelorette has stepped aside immediately after he refused to condemn the college conduct of a contestant on sister present The Bachelor. There was an attempt to get two BBC journalists fired for their reporting on the weak proof for puberty blockers serving to kids battling with their gender identification. And very last month, Condé Nast’s selection to appoint 27-calendar year-outdated Alexi McCammond as the new editor-in-chief of Teenager Vogue was thwarted when staffers revisited a collection of anti-Asian and homophobic tweets McCammond had posted on Twitter as a 17-yr-aged pupil. In the face of intense opposition, McCammond’s previous steps were considered way too great an impediment to the transition, and the publishing home has considering that declared that the pair have created a joint final decision “to portion ways”. 

Our on the web reputations have never ever been fairly so essential. Whether or not we’re contemplating supplying an individual a job, investing in their business enterprise, letting them rent out our home or even going on a day, the first point most of us do these days is a location of what you might contact online thanks diligence. We Google them, we carry out an graphic look for, we glance them up on YouTube and we seek out them out on social media. We want to make guaranteed we’re not employing a sexual intercourse offender to look soon after our children, investing in a serial con artist’s business enterprise or going on a day with a psychopath (or somebody a large amount fewer attractive than their curated on the net profile may well advise). 

© Giacomo Gambineri

A single of the top lookups for my identify is “Jemima Kelly bus”, which will notify all future commissioning editors, Airbnb hosts or husbands that I once – temporarily and accidentally – got a felony file and was barred from travelling to the US mainly because my cellular phone ran out of battery while I was returning property on the bus. Other people today need to put up with the indignity of sharing their identify with a prison, a porn star or one more controversial character with whom they would instead not be joined. Now, a burgeoning market is promising to give us again regulate, with a host of firms specialising in on the net popularity administration and search engine optimisation (Search engine optimization) that can assistance to cleanse up our digital footprints. Their services range from the quite typical social-media clean up-ups and on the internet disaster management all the way to burying destructive stories and environment up fake social-media accounts for all those geared up to dabble in track record management’s a bit murkier facet. 

The Marque, based mostly in Mayfair, London, describes itself as an “invitation only, electronic-profile administration platform for leaders in their field… to ensure that you look just as sensible on the web as you do offline”. The business insists that its ethos is not to whitewash – or possibly “woke-wash” – a client’s digital footprint, but that everybody must be in a position to choose what tales they tell about on their own. Marketing itself as a type of luxury product, The Marque describes its provider as being “the new will have to-have”.

“Once individuals get to a particular degree of good results, they tend to travel a Array Rover, it’s possible they put on Savile Row satisfies and a Rolex,” says Andrew Wessels, The Marque’s CEO and founder, who was a qualified cricket-player in his indigenous South Africa before turning out to be an entrepreneur. “Now they can also have a electronic twin.”

Sally Tennant, a private-banking veteran who is an trader in the corporation, claims it is crucial to “look right after your digital assets as you do your economical assets”. She argues that not only does The Marque “give you a hallmark of distinction that you’re a chief in your discipline – a stamp of credibility”, but also, and in particular in the course of lockdown, when we have been compelled to get to know people digitally, the provider gives “a a great deal a lot more rounded see than on LinkedIn”.

For around £3,000, the expense of its standard profile service, The Marque assigns purchasers a committed “profile manager” to build a electronic profile that features an up-to-date biography, as nicely as embedded inbound links to social media, films, content articles and anything else the client needs to consist of. The company’s Seo group, in the meantime, attempts to be certain that The Marque’s profile arrives high up on the 1st webpage of success on a Google search, and the enterprise also offers “performance reviews” on a regular foundation so that clients know how considerably their profile is becoming looked at and from what locale. Additionally, it will soon start a “digital briefcase” assistance, with prices setting up at £13,000 per annum, which will also supply an annual “digital audit” that will highlight any reputational, safety or privacy dangers it encounters and make tips to help with those. As component of this new presenting, The Marque will also offer “24/7 listening”, a support that will observe both traditional and social media for any mentions of the client, marking any “red flag” times and sending fast alerts. 

Previous Sainsbury’s manager Justin King, 1 of The Marque’s customers, tells me that element of the enchantment of owning an Search engine optimization-optimised profile was that he was sick of men and women on the lookout him up on Wikipedia and emailing him to inquire if he was the male who took away the Christmas reward. “Forever, my Wikipedia profile will inform you that I’m Scrooge,” he says. “The plan that you could preserve a one supply of reality in one particular position – my fact about me and what I do – was extremely appealing.” For Gary Lineker, a further customer, obtaining a profile on The Marque was less about offsetting negative press and a lot more about obtaining all his information and facts in one place and up to date – specifically valuable for somebody like him, who has no assistants and runs his possess diary. “It’s like a internet site, but I don’t have possibly the time or the drive to make my personal internet site,” he claims. 

When he’s learnt to police his possess social-media platforms, Lineker, 60, is sympathetic to all those footballers now entering the job who do not have the luxurious he did of staying authorized to make faults off the pitch mainly because of the permanency of the net. “I’ve found factors with footballers in which they’ve tweeted things aged 15, 16, 17, and you’re clearly not experienced plenty of to know what you really think then – we all adjust in time,” he says of “cancel culture”. “Would any of us seriously want to be judged on what we imagined and claimed at 17? Possibly not. I’ve surely improved as a human being as I have obtained older.” 

© Giacomo Gambineri

BrandYourself, a New-York based organization that does rather significantly what it states on the tin, caters to what Patrick Ambron, the company’s CEO and co-founder, calls the “full gamut” of clients, ranging from young adults hoping to increase their prospective buyers of having into university to superior-profile public figures who need a a lot more detailed strategy. One of the company’s most common products and solutions is its “social-media clean up-up”, which constitutes a thorough check of every thing that another person has ever completed, explained and even “liked” across their social-media platforms, and then flags up opportunity concerns that may surface area in the decades in advance. “For much better or even worse, there’s undoubtedly much more scrutiny of how people present on their own on the internet now, especially if you are superior profile,” suggests Ambron. “If you glimpse at university athletes, for instance – all of a sudden they get thrust into the highlight and persons start off studying years’ really worth of tweets and posts. We’ll present you matters that could get flagged as negative… Our stance is that, for all its great intentions, on line screening is an invasion of privateness and it doesn’t constantly get it appropriate.”

Dave King, who runs the London-primarily based Digitalis, which looks just after the on the net reputations of ultra-higher-net‑worth folks as nicely as corporations, states that around the earlier couple a long time there has been a move away from striving to keep on being nameless on the internet – an endeavor that is starting to be almost difficult – and towards using handle of your electronic footprint as a substitute. “Ten decades back, ‘What do I look like on Google?’ was a secondary problem in media relations,” he suggests. “Today, it’s normally the first.” He adds that online-standing-management providers are more important nowadays than conventional PR firms, several of which give their very own companies in this industry, but most of whom don’t have the exact stage of technology or knowledge they do. 

Terakeet is the New York-primarily based organization that led the SEO strategy for Barack Obama’s presidential strategies in both 2008 and 2012. Right now, its essential concentrate is on the corporate planet in which clientele – mainly Fortune 1000 companies, but also ultra-wealthy folks – pay out on common $150,000 a thirty day period to have their on the net reputations taken treatment of, with some paying out additional than $2m a thirty day period. “Most corporations phone us when the building is on fireplace,” claims the company’s CEO and co-founder MacLaren Cummings. “But the best time to do this is basically not when there’s a lot of heat on a company or CEO, it’s when it is fairly peaceful and the corporation is taking pleasure in a time period of terrific track record.” He also argues that there is nevertheless far too significantly concentrate on compensated research benefits – all those that appear up with a “promoted” tag – and not more than enough on organic ones. “Most companies shell out a disproportionate amount of money of their money on paid look for, even when a organization is in crisis,” he claims. “It’s virtually hilarious to me. Like when BP experienced the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, I Google BP and… the initially issue I see is an advertisement that suggests ‘BP cares’. Most people understands they acquired that advertisement!” 

At the other conclusion of the spectrum, providers such as the London-centered Pure Standing provide a more temporary service, with setting up prices of all over £1,500 a month to deal with troubles that the standard individual might encounter. This kind of as the customer who acquired turned down for a work because his future businesses experienced searched him on the net and discovered some sexually explicit pics. Even though the illustrations or photos were nothing to do with him, the fact that the company’s purchasers may well glimpse him up and discover them was deemed sufficient hazard that they decided not to offer you him the position. “Even if it’s not him, if they employed him to be in a client-experiencing job, and then a consumer Googles his identify, it is even now going to embarrass the corporation,” clarifies Simon Leigh, Pure Reputation’s running director. The person has now eradicated his 1st identify from his LinkedIn profile as a initial phase, but is using Pure Popularity to attempt to avoid the problem from going on all over again.

Pure Standing requires a mixture of simultaneous approaches to assist strengthen its clients’ on line reputations. It could go right to Google and ask them to take out content on the grounds of defamation or the suitable to be neglected. It also pays persons smaller quantities of cash to stop by and engage with other web-sites that occur up when you Google someone so that all those final results look at the top and the much more uncomfortable ones transfer even more down.

The risk, undoubtedly, in applying all these companies is that we will build an on line presence that is so flawless, we cannot enable but be a crushing disappointment when any person meets us IRL. It would be dishonest for us to declare that we never seem individuals up on line and make assessments right before we’ve achieved them. But a lot as we may possibly desire that our online reputations didn’t subject, it looks more and more complicated to argue that they really don’t. 

Nonetheless, just before we all hurry out to create a “cancel-proof” electronic presence, it’s possible we should also consider getting to be a fewer censorious society that permits for folks producing issues. If we really do not, we could possibly conclude up with a world in which only the most compliant and banal people today – all those who have never ever dared to deviate from the consensus – or all those who have been rich ample to pay for the most deep-dive on-line-cleansing services, are vaulted into positions of actual electrical power. 

Publié le Catégories Réseaux sociaux

🔵⚪🔴 The 11 Most effective Word-Of-Mouth Marketing Tactics To Expand Your Small business – Stratégie Réseaux Sociaux


Surviving and producing your mark in the quick-paced on the net world has come to be a lot more brutal than ever. With tens of millions of on the internet organizations across the world, the competition has turn out to be cutthroat. For this reason, focusing on prospective audiences and converting them into clients necessitates a lot more than just one particular style of marketing.

It has become very important for organizations to use just about every marketing channel they can believe of, to publicize their manufacturer to existing and opportunity consumers.

In the arena of digital marketing, there is just one highly effective resource that is often overlooked by marketers when it will come to advertising the manufacturer and the commodities offered by it phrase-of-mouth marketing (WOMM).

What is Phrase-of-Mouth Marketing?

Before relocating on to the discussion of word-of-mouth marketing technique to expand your on the net business enterprise and enhance eCommerce product sales, permit us look at what term-of-mouth marketing is and is it an helpful instrument for marketing?

Term-of-mouth marketing or advertising is a modernized type of classic word-of-mouth in the social media period.

A long time back, phrase-of-mouth marketing was confined to sharing sights and thoughts from one particular person to one more or recommending something to a individual or group. In modern age, word-of-mouth marketing has a huge reach owing to the advent of social sharing web sites and on-line forums. If a particular person shares his sights about a brand name or its items, millions of people can see it in a matter of seconds.

Forms of Word-Of-Mouth Marketing

Term-of-Mouth marketing or advertising can occur in two varieties:

  1. a) Natural Word-of-Mouth Marketing

It refers to when people today grow to be brand name advocates and share their favourable activities with the business or its items. Since the company furnished them a superior shopping experience and the goods fulfilled their promises.

When a customer is delighted with a brand name, he loves to share his knowledge with his close friends and spouse and children users.

  1. b) Amplified Word-of-Mouth Marketing

This sort of word-of-mouth marketing refers to the marketers’ focused efforts to inspire the consumers to share their expertise with the company. Entrepreneurs structure and launch campaigns with an objective to invite men and women to spread good issues about the business and its products.

Is Term-of-Mouth Marketing Helpful?

Opinions shared by people today on-line and offline can have a large outcome on a business’s sales. If a human being shares good issues about a solution or how it solved his challenge with his mates and relatives associates and advised them to store from the exact same company, 92% will believe in his advice.

That’s the power of term-of-mouth marketing. Without expending a fortune on operating adverts, your company can obtain new shoppers just due to the fact a buddy advised your brand to them.

Word-of-mouth marketing will work for friends and loved ones and also for hundreds of other persons throughout the world. Millennials and gen Z have a common follow of looking through the opinions just before obtaining a products or interacting with a business enterprise. Men and women want to be confident that they will receive a superior excellent merchandise or services from a business in return for their really hard-earned income.

88% of persons rely on online critiques shared by the individuals.

If a human being finds favourable reviews about a model or solution, he will not hesitate to share his credit rating card particulars with the business. On the other hand, if people today browse destructive reviews about a business, they will drop their strategy of getting to be shoppers.

Word-of-mouth marketing is a potent software that can make or split the picture of your organization. Use it strategically to develop your online small business and enhance eCommerce sales.

11 Very best Phrase-Of-Mouth Marketing Approaches to Increase Your Company

  1. Provide an Epic Experience to Your Customers

If you want persons to talk about your brand or small business,

give them a cause to do that. Put your self in a customer’s footwear and check with on your own, will you unfold very good factors about a small business that unsuccessful to supply you exceptional services or bought substandard goods? Of program not!

Prospects do not harbor any grudge for a model. They only share how their knowledge was with a business enterprise. If you want your buyers to grow to be your model advocates, you have to retain them joyful right before, all through, and right after their shopping for journey.

Use the pursuing approaches to satisfy our clients and persuade them to unfold great words about your organization:

  1. i) Strengthen the Good quality of Your Merchandise

Folks are not receiving your goods for no cost. They are shelling out an sum for it. Therefore, it is their suitable to obtain a great high quality product that does what it promises. If you deliver a cheap product to your customer, you will not only drop just a single purchaser but a superior the greater part of your possible consumers also.

If you are 100% certain that you are offering exceptional quality goods, keep on performing that. Aside from the quality, goal to boost your packaging as perfectly. Packaging of the goods speaks a great deal about how companies benefit their customers. Merchandise really should be correctly packed, specifically if they are fragile. Personalize the offers by including the customer’s identify. People today enjoy to seize and share shots of the things that have their names on them. For example, Starbucks writes its customers’ names on the espresso cups. Individuals just take photos of their cups and put up them on their social media.

  1. ii) Easy-to-Use Web page

If men and women have to invest a substantial amount of time seeking for the products, location their orders, and checkout from the site, they will not propose their friends to check out your internet site.

On the internet purchasers are impatient they need everything just with a one click or tap. Your web site ought to be arranged properly, so the consumers don’t have a hard time searching for the products and solutions.

Your checkout approach should really be like a breeze. It is proposed to have a small and straightforward checkout type. The additional ease you present to your consumers, the extra they will rave about you and your support.

  1. Use Hashtags

Use suitable and distinctive hashtags to make people today speak about your manufacturer and items. If you are publishing an graphic or a movie on your social media accounts, do not fail to remember to add your business name and the product’s hashtags.

Your shoppers can use the exact same hashtags when they chat about you or add a image of your item. It will permit other audiences to watch what people today assume of your model. They will also understand about your business enterprise and come across you on social media platforms easily.

If you have commenced a challenge or internet hosting a giveaway, making use of hashtags will make positive that your posts pattern and reach a broader audience.

Hashtags also surface in lookup suggestions when a man or woman enters a lookup question on social platforms for example, if a individual searches for Oprah Winfrey’s hashtags on Instagram, he will also see the hashtags of her manufacturers like #oprahdaily, #owntv, and #oprahsbookclub.

  1. Share Consumer-Generated Content

As your manufacturer gains reputation, people today will build articles related to your brand or a merchandise on their personal. For illustration, a particular person wears a Zara top rated. She uploads a image of her carrying that leading and tags the model. The enterprise can use her picture with her authorization and share it on its profile or website.

If a human being results in material about your manufacturer and tags you in his posts, his pals and loved ones customers who follow him on social media will discover about your company and spot their have faith in in you since their close friend has good points to say about you.

It is pretty effortless for renowned brand names to leverage user-generated written content, but startup businesses can also gain from it. Correct, that people today will not produce substantially articles for modest brand names. However, tempting them with a reward can encourage them to do so for your business enterprise.

All you have to do is operate a contest on social media and invite your followers to share their photographs although applying or donning your item and get a prospect to get awesome gifts or discounted vouchers.

You can also talk to your followers to add their friends and family to the contest too so that they can also gain no cost goodies. Individuals will occur up with creative content and spread optimistic things about your manufacturer with their social media buddies.

  1. Get Critiques

9 out of 10 men and women go through on the internet critiques in advance of producing a purchase. If your retail outlet or social media accounts do not have consumer critiques, you are closing the doorways to welcome a new audience to your web-site.

Evaluations get the job done as a powerful device for term-of-mouth strategy. Suppose you strategically place the testimonials on your web-site. In that scenario, you allow the site visitors to understand what people today have to say about the small business and how their encounter was by staying your customer.

The greater part of the prospects will never submit a evaluate about a brand online. You have to access such clients and request them to publish a critique on your Facebook website page or web page to appeal to other people. You can offer you them a present or a purchasing coupon in return for their good critique.

You can also use movie evaluations of folks and publish them on your social media accounts and YouTube channel.

  1. Design and style a Referral System

Yet another system to encourage folks to chat about you is to style and design a referral system. To make your shoppers promote about your manufacturer, give them anything in return. You can provide your buyer a reward, discount on the upcoming invest in, or loyalty details which he can redeem in exchange for recommending your business in his social circle.

Apart from featuring financial gains, you can also award non-financial positive aspects to your shoppers who refer you to their buddies. You can reward them by posting their written content on your social media accounts. It will maximize their followings and engagement. It will also motivate other men and women to create material about your manufacturer as it will be shared on your profile, and 100s of folks will follow their account.

  1. Get Social

You have to remain energetic in the marketplace and interact with your audience. Inactive corporations are shortly forgotten, and the rivals use this possibility to target the prospects.

If you want to be remembered by individuals and grow to be the subject of their discussion, interact with them. The greatest way to link with your audience is on social media. You can stir up an interesting discussion, start off a debate, carry out polls, or respond to their queries below the comment portion.

Social media platforms also allow companies to humanize their brand names and acquire a relationship with the viewers. Use this system properly to turn into the communicate of the city.

  1. Build Impressive Information

If persons appear throughout an interesting photograph, partaking web site write-up, or a amusing movie, they will not acquire more minutes to share the content material with their friends and family.

Give individuals one thing appealing to check out, so they have no option other than to share and explore it with their pals. You can also operate participating and inspirational adverts to focus on your audience’s psychological side and generate a reaction from them.

The great illustration to give in this predicament is mountain dew. The brand name generates ads in which it displays the hazardous stunts carried out by the specialists. It thrills the viewers to see people executing daring stunts, and they chat about it excitedly.

  1. Shock Your Customers with Freebies

The word No cost operates like magic in the on line planet. Persons like free things, and they excitedly share about acquiring some with their buddies and family.

If you want your clients to spread optimistic matters about you and convince their friends to develop into your prospective buyers, send out them price cut codes, reward vouchers often.

Never get worried! It will not final result in a decline. When you deliver the vouchers, attach a ailment that the shopper will get totally free delivery or a surprise gift on procuring over a specified quantity. Your shoppers will not thoughts investing some excess funds to avail totally free goodies.

You can also deliver samples of your solutions as a present. Acquiring anything for no cost will make them speak about you.

  1. Host Contest and Giveaways

Hosting giveaways and contests are a ideal way to appeal to far more audience and increase engagement on social media. All you have to do is upload a visually captivating impression of the goods and set some giveaways’ guidelines.

Folks enjoy to participate in these kinds of giveaways just after all, they aren’t going to shed just about anything if they really don’t acquire. Your followers will invite their relatives and pals to adhere to your social media accounts and engage below your posts.

  1. Affiliate Marketing

Affiliate marketing can support your small business to expand and enhance income. Affiliate marketing refers to offering a fee to your consumers or influencers if they refer your small business to a pal or followers, and he purchases a little something from your business.

You can collaborate with your niche’s well known bloggers and talk to them to spread excellent terms about your model. They can attach an affiliate url to their weblogs or profiles. If their followers achieve your business, you have to shell out a selected proportion of the sale to that influencer.

Affiliate marketing is an excellent way to make your shoppers communicate about your model in return for a smaller share of the sale. They will do all the marketing of your merchandise. You should not get worried you will only pay back the fee when the sale is created.

  1. Influencer Marketing

Influencer marketing is attaining enormous acceptance in the entire world of digital marketing. Influencers have huge organic followers. Your model can get publicity to countless numbers of people by using the channel of influencer marketing.

You can spend the influencer and explain to your expectations about what kind of submit you want them to write-up. When an influencer will converse about your products and solutions or display how to use them, its followers will also try out your products and solutions on the influencer’s advice.

49% of customers contemplate the tips by an influencer. Out of those people, 40% will get the merchandise immediately after looking at it on Twitter, Facebook, or Instagram.

Wrapping It Up…

Using a phrase-of-mouth marketing marketing campaign can assistance a business to build model awareness and increase its eCommerce income. It is not uncomplicated for any business to switch its present prospects into model ambassadors overnight.

Having said that, by supplying your prospects with dependable good experiences and large-excellent items, you will get their loyalty, and they will unfold very good things about you in their social circle.

The methods mentioned in this post will assist your manufacturer to implement word-of-mouth marketing techniques and draw in a far more future viewers.

Really encourage your people to share their reviews and comments. Use the assessments strategically on your web site and social media profiles to enable men and women know your products and companies are remarkable.

Creator Bio:

Ricky Hayes is the Co-Founder and Head of Marketing at Debutify – free Shopify concept, aiding dropshippers develop significant-changing shops in minutes. He is a passionate entrepreneur managing multiple organizations, marketing companies, and mentoring applications.

Publié le Catégories Réseaux sociaux

🔵⚪🔴 L’augmentation de la consommation de cannabis entraîne une demande croissante de technologie d’alcootest efficace – Stratégie Réseaux Sociaux


– Commentaire des nouvelles de FinancialBuzz.com

NEW YORK, 19 avril 2021 / PRNewswire / – L’industrie du hashish a radicalement changé au cours des cinq dernières années. Grâce à l’évolution des sentiments des consommateurs, aux victoires législatives dans plusieurs grands États et à la disponibilité de nouveaux produits pour une substantial inhabitants, l’industrie du hashish est devenue un marché majeur attirant des investisseurs du monde entier. La perception moreover accueillante de la légalisation du cannabis peut être attribuée, en grande partie, à l’adoption du Farm Monthly bill de 2018, qui a légalisé la manufacturing de chanvre industriel, le transformant en un produit agricole courant. Peu de temps après, de nombreuses catégories de produits CBD ont commencé à apparaître. Alors que le hashish médical domine toujours le vaste marché du cannabis, les endeavours croissants de sensibilisation et de légalisation devraient propulser davantage l’industrie dans son ensemble. Par exemple, ces dernières semaines, New York est devenu le dernier État à légaliser le hashish récréatif et, ce faisant, il devrait devenir l’un des as well as grands marchés du pays. Cannabix Systems Inc. (OTC: BLOZF) (CSE: BLO), Curaleaf Hldgs Inc. (OTC: CURLF), Inexperienced Thumb Industries Inc. (OTC: GTBIF), Aphria Inc. (NASDAQ: APHA), Cresco Labs Inc. ( OTC: CRLBF)

Lentement, de in addition en furthermore d’États mettent en œuvre une législation pour réglementer les produits du hashish. Étant donné que les ventes de ces produits sont de in addition en furthermore répandues, de nouvelles réglementations importantes devraient être mises en œuvre. Plus précisément, les régulateurs gouvernementaux ont exprimé leurs inquiétudes quant au potentiel d’abus de cannabis. En règle générale, les agents des forces de l’ordre peuvent effectuer des exams sur le terrain tels que des tests de sobriété ou même des tests d’échantillons. Cependant, les checks de sobriété peuvent être inexacts, tandis que les tests d’échantillons peuvent ne pas recevoir de résultats pendant des jours, voire des semaines. En conséquence, les entreprises du marché du cannabis ont commencé à développer la technologie nécessaire pour que les organismes d’application de la loi puissent les utiliser dans la répression des conducteurs conduisant un véhicule sous l’influence de la cannabis.

Technologies Cannabix Inc. (OTC: BLOZF) (CSE: BLO) vient d’annoncer une nouvelle de dernière heure selon laquelle “il a reçu un avis d’acceptation de l’Office de la propriété intellectuelle du Canada (OPIC) pour sa demande de brevet de 2015, n ° 2887841, intitulée” Dispositif de détection des drogues au cannabis “. La Société poursuit cette demande de brevet originale depuis son dépôt le 16 avril 2015. Il est à noter qu’un avis d’acceptation de l’OPIC ne constitue pas une délivrance de brevet. La société fera rapport en temps opportun sur les développements importants concernant sa demande de brevet «Dispositif de détection des drogues à foundation de cannabis» auprès de l’OPIC.

Cannabix Systems est à l’avant-garde de la recherche et du développement pour créer des systems de exam d’haleine au level de support pour la détection du ∆9-tétrahydrocannabinol («THC») – le composant psychoactif de la marijuana qui trigger des facultés affaiblies.

À propos de Cannabix Systems Inc.

Cannabix Technologies Inc. est un développeur de systems d’alcootest de cannabis pour les forces de l’ordre et le lieu de travail. Cannabix travaille au développement de dispositifs de dépistage de drogues qui détecteront le THC – le composant psychoactif de la cannabis qui induce des facultés affaiblies à l’aide d’échantillons d’haleine. Un test respiratoire pour le THC permettrait aux employeurs et aux forces de l’ordre d’identifier la consommation récente de cannabis qui correspond mieux à la déficience. ”

Pour notre dernier spectacle «Buzz on the Street» mettant en vedette les dernières nouvelles de l’entreprise Cannabix Systems Inc., veuillez vous rendre sur:

https://www.youtube.com/check out?v=bK-YHEI7wfI&ab_channel=FinancialBuzzMedia

Curaleaf Hldgs Inc. (OTCQX: CURLF) a annoncé moreover tôt ce mois-ci une nouvelle graphic de marque Curaleaf pour les points de vente récemment acquis de la société et l’ouverture de deux nouveaux magasins à Horsham et crême Philadelphia. Les nouveaux magasins de marque Curaleaf marquent les 11e et 12e emplacements de la société en Pennsylvanie. En tant qu’opérateur de cannabis verticalement intégré reconnu pour sa qualité, son experience et sa fiabilité, Curaleaf est la as well as grande marque nationale de vente au détail de hashish aux États-Unis, et disposera de 104 emplacements dans 23 États après l’ouverture des deux nouveaux Pennsylvanie dispensaires. “Nous sommes heureux d’étendre et de renforcer notre présence au détail en Pennsylvanie, offrant à nos sufferers des soins et une éducation inégalés, ainsi qu’un accès à des produits de cannabis de qualité supérieure », a déclaré Joe Bayern, Directeur général de Curaleaf. «Nous sommes impatients de desservir ces communautés et prévoyons que la demande dépassera rapidement les ventes prévues sur ce marché, alors que le cannabis keep on de gagner en acceptation pour une variété de besoins en matière de santé et de bien-être.

Eco-friendly Thumb Industries Inc. (OTCQB: GTBIF) a annoncé la semaine dernière le lancement de Cann, une des principales marques de boissons infusées au cannabis, en Illinois. Green Thumb et Cann ont précédemment annoncé un partenariat pour amener la marque de boissons à Illinois et New Jersey avec des programs d’expansion vers d’autres marchés. Cann est maintenant disponible à tous Increase ™ Illinois emplacements des dispensaires (à l’exclusion Mundelein), ainsi que dans les magasins de détail Ascend, Moca et MedMen. Se lever Joliet (Colorado), Rise Lake in the Hills et Rise Niles hébergeront également un magasin éphémère Cann jusqu’en août avec un ambassadeur de la marque Cann sur spot pour répondre aux questions sur les nouveaux toniques sociaux de hashish disponibles. «La catégorie des boissons au cannabis se développe à mesure que les adultes recherchent des options à l’alcool, et Cann offre une expérience supérieure», a déclaré le fondateur et PDG de Green Thumb. Ben Kovler. “Nous considérons le Cann comme un substitut aux seltzers, au vin et à la bière pour les nouveaux consommateurs de hashish qui cherchent à réduire ou à remplacer l’alcool, mais qui veulent quand même l’interaction sociale familière consistant à partager un verre avec des amis et la famille. Si vous n’aimez pas la gueule de bois, c’est pour toi.”

Aphria Inc. (NASDAQ: APHA) a rapporté la semaine dernière l’ajout des huiles à haute puissance THC 30: et Solei As well as + de Good Source à son portefeuille de marques primées à usage adulte, qui rejoignent une gamme d’autres formats disponibles, y compris des fleurs séchées entières, pré- rouleaux, sprays oraux, gels mous, vapos et topiques. «Chez Aphria Inc., nous comprenons l’importance d’offrir une flexibilité aux consommateurs en ce qui concerne les solutions de consommation, c’est pourquoi l’élargissement de notre portefeuille pour inclure des huiles à haute puissance était une priorité pour l’équipe», a déclaré Irwin D. Simon, Chef de la way chez Aphria Inc. “Nous continuons de faire de notre priorité de fournir aux Canadiens du hashish de la plus haute qualité et l’ajout d’huiles à haute puissance ne fait pas exception.”

Cresco Labs Inc. (OTCQX: CRLBF) a annoncé la semaine dernière le lancement de Marvel Wellness (“Question”) Gummies et la disponibilité en Illinois. Les nouveaux produits comestibles à faible dose sont enrichis de plantes pour compléter l’expérience globale du hashish, et leur emballage uncomplicated communique les effets souhaités afin que les nouveaux arrivants de la catégorie soucieux de bien-être puissent consommer en toute confiance pour ajouter du cannabis à leur method de vie quotidien. «Nous nous concentrons sur l’augmentation de notre element grâce à une stratégie d’innovation qui capitalise à la fois sur la dynamique du marché et sur l’espace blanc du portefeuille de produits comestibles», a déclaré Greg Butler, Main Commercial Officer chez Cresco Labs. “Les bonbons gélifiés à 5 mg représentent l’un des segments de marché les moreover importants, et les offres Ponder Wellness répondent à certains des besoins les moreover souhaitables des consommateurs: se détendre, mieux dormir et être heureux. Surprise Wellness est conçu pour les situations exactes où le bien-être – les consommateurs avertis recherchent des produits pour améliorer ou améliorer leurs expériences quotidiennes. “

Abonnez-vous maintenant! Regardez-nous rapport en immediate https://www.youtube.com/FinancialBuzzMedia

Suivez-nous sur Twitter pour des mises à jour financières en temps réel: https://twitter.com/financialbuzz

Suivez-nous et parlez-nous sur Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/financialbuzz

Facebook Like Us pour recevoir des flux en direct: https://www.fb.com/Financialbuzz/

À propos de FinancialBuzz.com

FinancialBuzz.com, un portail World-wide-web d’information sur l’actualité financière de premier plan conçu pour fournir les dernières tendances en matière d’actualités du marché, d’actualités sur les investissements, de finances personnelles, de politique, de divertissement, de diffusions approfondies sur les nouvelles boursières, l’analyse du marché et les entrevues d’entreprises. Pionnier dans le domaine du numérique, de la manufacturing vidéo et de l’intégration des réseaux sociaux, FinancialBuzz.com crée un contenu initial 100% unique. FinancialBuzz.com propose également la diffusion d’informations financières, l’image de marque, le marketing et la publicité pour des tiers pour des informations d’entreprise et du contenu original through notre plate-forme multimédia special qui comprend Newswire Supply, Digital Marketing Social Media Relations, production vidéo, diffusion et publications financières.

Veuillez noter: FinancialBuzz.com n’est pas un conseiller ou un conseiller financier, un conseiller en placement ou un courtier et n’entreprend aucune activité qui exigerait une telle inscription. Les informations fournies sur http://www.FinancialBuzz.com (le “ Web site ”) sont soit des actualités financières originales, soit des publicités payantes fournies [exclusively] par nos affiliés (contenu sponsorisé), FinancialBuzz.com, une société de médias et de marketing d’information financière conclut des achats dans les médias ou des accords de support avec les sociétés faisant l’objet des content articles publiés sur le website ou d’autres éditoriaux pour la publicité de ces sociétés. FinancialBuzz.com n’a été rémunéré directement par aucune des sociétés mentionnées ici dans cet éditorial, sauf indication contraire. Nous ne sommes pas un fournisseur de médias d’information indépendant et, par conséquent, ne déclarons ni ne garantissons que les informations publiées sur le web site sont exactes, impartiales ou complètes. FinancialBuzz.com reçoit des honoraires pour la manufacturing et la présentation de contenu sophistiqué et de haute qualité sur FinancialBuzz.com ainsi que d’autres solutions de médias d’information financière. FinancialBuzz.com n’offre pas d’opinions personnelles, de recommandations ou de commentaires biaisés auto nous incorporons purement des informations sur le marché community ainsi que des nouvelles financières et d’entreprise. FinancialBuzz.com agrège ou régurgite uniquement les actualités financières ou d’entreprise by using notre fil d’actualité financier exceptional et notre plateforme médiatique. Pour Cannabix Systems Inc. creation vidéo, montage de tournage, reportage d’actualités, diffusion d’actualités financières et d’entreprise, FinancialBuzz.com a été rémunéré Cinq mille bucks par la compagnie. Nos honoraires peuvent être soit une somme forfaitaire en espèces, soit un nombre négocié de titres des sociétés présentées sur cet éditorial ou website, ou une combinaison de ceux-ci. Les titres sont généralement payés par segments, dont une partie est reçue lors de l’engagement et le solde est payé à la fin ou près de la conclusion de l’engagement. FinancialBuzz.com divulguera toujours toute payment en valeurs mobilières ou en espèces pour la publicité dans les relations publiques d’actualité financière. FinancialBuzz.com ne s’engage à mettre à jour aucune des informations sur l’éditorial ou sur le website ou à continuer à publier des informations sur les sociétés.Les informations contenues dans ce document ne sont pas destinées à être utilisées comme base de décisions d’investissement et ne doivent pas être considérées comme des conseils d’investissement ou Une advice. Les informations contenues dans ce document ne constituent pas une offre ou une sollicitation d’achat, de détention ou de vente de titres. FinancialBuzz.com, les membres et les affiliés ne sont pas responsables des gains ou pertes résultant des opinions exprimées sur cet éditorial ou sur ce website, des profils d’entreprise, des citations ou dans d’autres files ou présentations qu’il publie électroniquement ou sous forme imprimée. Les investisseurs acceptent l’entière responsabilité de toutes leurs décisions d’investissement sur la foundation de leurs propres recherches et évaluations indépendantes de leurs propres objectifs d’investissement, de leur tolérance au risque et de leur scenario financière. FinancialBuzz.com. En accédant à cet éditorial et à ce web site World-wide-web et à ses internet pages, vous acceptez d’être lié par les circumstances d’utilisation et la politique de confidentialité, qui peuvent être modifiées de temps à autre. Aucun des contenus émis par FinancialBuzz.com ne constitue une recommandation pour un investisseur d’acheter, de détenir ou de vendre un titre particulier, de poursuivre une stratégie d’investissement particulière ou que tout titre convient à tout investisseur. Cette publication est fournie par FinancialBuzz.com. Chaque investisseur est seul responsable de déterminer si un titre ou une stratégie d’investissement particulier est adapté en fonction de ses objectifs, des autres titres détenus, des besoins en matière de condition financière et du statut fiscal. Vous acceptez de consulter votre conseiller en placement, conseiller fiscal et juridique avant de prendre toute décision d’investissement. Nous ne faisons aucune déclaration quant à l’exhaustivité, l’exactitude ou l’intemporalité du matériel fourni. Tous les matériaux sont sujets à changement sans préavis. Les informations sont obtenues à partir de resources considérées comme fiables, mais leur exactitude et leur exhaustivité ne sont pas garanties. Pour connaître l’intégralité de notre clause de non-responsabilité, divulgation et ailments d’utilisation, veuillez visiter: http://www.financialbuzz.com.

Get in touch with médias:

data@financialbuzz.com
+ 1-877-601-1879
www.FinancialBuzz.com

Resource FinancialBuzz.com



Publié le Catégories Réseaux sociaux

🔵⚪🔴 Meilleurs services de rédaction d’essais aux États-Unis: évaluations fiables 2021 – Stratégie Réseaux Sociaux


SEATTLE, 19 avril 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) – Stressays a interrogé 24000 étudiants de 50 collèges et universités américains au sujet des services de rédaction d’essais afin de déterminer les entreprises les plus populaires que les étudiants utilisent pour obtenir de l’aide dans leurs travaux.

62 pour cent des élèves ont dit qu’ils utilisaient PaperHelp soit pour une dissertation ou un devoir au moins une fois. Nous avons étudié la situation actuelle sur le marché et créé une liste des meilleurs services de rédaction d’essais aux États-Unis d’Amérique. Lisez nos critiques de services de rédaction d’essais ci-dessous pour pouvoir comparer les entreprises et choisir celle qui correspond le mieux à vos besoins.

Les sites suivants ont été classés en fonction de leur popularité, de la qualité des articles qu’ils rédigent, du professionnalisme des rédacteurs et de la qualité du service à la clientèle.

Top 5 des services de rédaction d’essais sur lesquels vous pouvez compter

1. PaperHelp – le meilleur choix pour les missions complexes

PaperHelp est un service de rédaction d’essais bien connu non seulement aux États-Unis, mais dans le monde entier. Il aide les étudiants dans leurs essais depuis plus de 15 ans et a réuni une équipe de rédacteurs d’essais passionnés et hautement qualifiés, capables de livrer des commandes de toute complexité.

Il s’agit d’une solution unique pour tous vos problèmes de devoirs. Ils ont une grande expérience dans la rédaction d’essais d’admission, de travaux de session, de résolution d’équations mathématiques, de fourniture aux clients de services d’édition et de relecture. Vous pouvez même commander un mémoire rédigé à partir de zéro ou demander à un professionnel de relire ou de réviser une de ses sections. PaperHelp a des prix moyens, le coût de la rédaction d’un essai commence à 10 $ par page.

Avantages

  • doctorat niveau qualité des papiers
  • Délais de livraison respectés
  • Prix ​​raisonnable (à partir de 10 $ par page)
  • Garantie de remboursement à toute épreuve
  • Site Web facile à utiliser, facile à passer une commande
  • Il est possible de payer dans n’importe quelle devise (USD, EUR, CAD, GBP, AUD)
  • Site Web facile à utiliser, facile à passer une commande

Les inconvénients

  • Parfois, il est difficile de trouver des écrivains pour des sujets particuliers comme la programmation ou l’ingénierie
  • Vous devez payer un supplément pour le rapport de plagiat

2. Expert en rédaction – service pas cher, bon rapport qualité prix

ExpertWriting est un service de rédaction académique populaire qui fournit des articles originaux à temps. Ici, vous obtiendrez des essais originaux de haute qualité et il vous sera proposé d’utiliser toutes les options qu’un service de rédaction d’essais fiable devrait avoir.

ExpertWriting se concentre sur les besoins majeurs du client. L’un d’eux est l’anonymat. Cette société ne partage jamais vos données avec des tiers ou vous demande de fournir plus de détails que nécessaire pour effectuer le paiement. ExpertWriting fournit des articles originaux, correctement cités, rédigés par des rédacteurs d’essais ENL et ESL. Pour cette raison, il fait partie des meilleurs services de rédaction de dissertations que les étudiants embauchent.

L’utilisation d’ExpertWriting est totalement anonyme, car même les rédacteurs ne peuvent voir aucune de vos informations personnelles. Vous êtes identifié dans le système par un numéro d’identification personnel, aucun nom partagé. ExpertWriting est un bon choix pour ceux qui veulent rester anonymes et certainement pour ceux qui apprécient la bonne qualité.

Avantages:

  • Service pas cher, bon rapport qualité prix
  • Remises régulières, programme de fidélité généreux
  • Livraison rapide (délai d’exécution de 3 heures disponible)
  • Service de suivi très solide, l’entreprise est prête à s’améliorer et à répondre aux commentaires négatifs

Les inconvénients:

  • Les commandes urgentes ne sont pas si bon marché
  • Le service client peut être très lent et inutile

3. EssayPro – excellent pour les commandes urgentes

EssayPro réside fièrement sur la position numéro trois sur notre liste des meilleurs services de rédaction pour une raison. Il a définitivement à l’esprit le meilleur intérêt du client. Le principal avantage d’EssayPro est qu’il s’agit d’un marché de rédaction d’essais où vous pouvez choisir un écrivain pour votre tâche en fonction de ses critiques, de ses qualifications et de son expérience.

Votre essai pourrait être fait en quelques heures ici. Vous pouvez choisir un rédacteur ESL ou ENL parmi des centaines de candidats.

Ce service de rédaction d’essais offre une assistance 24h / 24 et a mis en place un système sans précédent de email et les alertes SMS que les clients reçoivent lorsque le statut de leur commande a été modifié. Ils ne vous prennent pas le contrôle. Ils vous aident simplement à gérer vos tâches et à le faire mieux que quiconque.

Avantages:

  • Plus de 500 rédacteurs d’essais professionnels disponibles
  • Vaste choix de matières et de disciplines, vous pouvez trouver un écrivain pour n’importe quelle tâche
  • Service urgent, vous pouvez faire rédiger votre essai en 2-3 heures

Les inconvénients:

  • Rares et petites remises, les offres spéciales sont quasi inexistantes
  • La plupart des écrivains sont du Kenya, il est difficile de trouver un écrivain des États-Unis

4. GradeMiners – le plus polyvalent

C’est le meilleur service de rédaction d’essais selon Yahoo, SiteJabber, TrustPilot et d’autres sources fiables. La société a des tonnes de commentaires positifs en ligne. Bien que ce site soit plus cher que d’autres, la qualité de l’écriture correspond au prix élevé, vous pouvez donc utiliser ce service même si vous avez besoin de papiers très complexes.

GradeMiners dispose d’une excellente équipe interne de rédacteurs professionnels qui livrent toujours des articles de premier ordre. Tous les rédacteurs qui travaillent chez GradeMiners sont titulaires d’un diplôme américain, il n’est donc pas surprenant que ce service soit plus cher que les services qui fonctionnent avec des rédacteurs ESL ou des pigistes.

Si vous ne souhaitez pas modifier votre article ou demander plusieurs révisions, GradeMiners est la meilleure option.

Avantages:

  • Excellente qualité d’écriture
  • Bon support client
  • Vous pouvez choisir un essayiste professionnel des États-Unis
  • De nombreuses réductions et un programme de parrainage

Les inconvénients:

  • GradeMiners coûte cher, surtout si votre échéance est urgente
  • Service client grossier
  • Les paiements ne sont disponibles qu’en USD

Si vous n’êtes pas satisfait de votre article, vous pouvez demander une révision gratuite dans les 10 jours suivant sa réception. Cependant, la plupart des clients notent qu’ils n’ont même pas eu besoin de demander des révisions. Ce service a une excellente réputation en ligne, il publie donc sur le site Web de véritables critiques provenant de plates-formes tierces.

Un essai simple vous coûtera à partir de 11 $, mais vous pouvez obtenir des codes promotionnels si vous contactez l’entreprise sur les réseaux sociaux.

5. 99Papers – populaire parmi les étudiants internationaux

99Papers est un service de rédaction papier renommé qui est particulièrement populaire parmi les étudiants au Royaume-Uni et au Canada. Cette entreprise est fière de sa livraison à temps, de sa grande qualité et de son service client fiable.

La plupart du temps, 99Papers livre des papiers de bonne qualité. La note moyenne d’un essai rédigé par 99Papers est de 80%. Cela devient de plus en plus populaire, car l’entreprise est prête à s’améliorer et à s’améliorer. Auparavant, 99Papers n’avait pas de garantie de remboursement. Cependant, maintenant qu’ils ont commencé à l’offrir à leurs clients, vous êtes entièrement protégé au cas où vous ne seriez pas satisfait de la qualité de votre papier.

99Papers rédige tous les types d’articles académiques, y compris des essais, des articles de recherche (travaux de session), des thèses, des dissertations et plus encore.

Avantages:

  • Bonne qualité
  • Livraison rapide
  • Réputation en ligne généralement positive
  • Grand choix d’écrivains et d’éditeurs

Les inconvénients:

  • L’entreprise n’a pas de programme de fidélité
  • Des révisions sont nécessaires, certains rédacteurs ne suivent pas les instructions
  • Ce n’est pas un service bon marché, surtout par rapport à ExpertWriting

FAQ

Est-il illégal d’embaucher quelqu’un pour rédiger mon essai?

Les services de rédaction d’essais sont absolument légaux, car aucune loi n’interdit l’utilisation de ces services. Les entreprises de rédaction d’essais n’enfreignent aucune loi et ont les mêmes caractéristiques que les services de tutorat. La seule chose qui pourrait susciter des doutes est le but final des articles. Les entreprises de rédaction d’essais commencent leur travail après la signature de l’accord T&C avec un client, et un client doit accepter de comprendre tous les risques liés à l’utilisation de ce service. Officiellement, vous ne pouvez pas remettre un article que vous avez acheté en ligne.

Chaque service de rédaction de dissertations avertit leurs clients que les articles qu’ils fournissent ne peuvent être utilisés qu’à titre d’exemples de référencement. Le client est responsable de l’utilisation finale des papiers personnalisés qu’il a obtenus et doit connaître les règles suivies par son collège dans ce domaine.

Les services de rédaction d’essais les mieux notés fournissent leur aide légalement et conformément à leurs politiques internes. Ces entreprises aident les étudiants à améliorer leurs notes en les aidant à faire leurs devoirs. Ils montrent comment ils peuvent améliorer leur performance globale et essaient d’éviter de rater les délais plus tard. C’est une sorte d’enseignement dont chaque élève a besoin au moins une fois dans son parcours d’études.

Des problèmes d’éthique peuvent survenir uniquement si un élève décide d’abuser de l’aide qu’il a reçue et, par exemple, de soumettre un essai qu’il a obtenu comme le sien. Cela va à l’encontre des règles des services de rédaction d’essais et peut probablement nuire à sa réputation.

Les services de rédaction d’essais sont-ils fiables?

Pas tous, mais la majorité le sont. Les entreprises de rédaction de dissertations travaillent dur pour gagner une bonne réputation et gagner la confiance des étudiants. Même une petite erreur peut entraîner un échec total, car le principal outil publicitaire – le bouche à oreille – est toujours incroyablement efficace et rapide. Les meilleures critiques de services de rédaction d’essais sont basées sur une expérience réelle, il vaut donc la peine de demander des recommandations à vos amis.

Il existe de nombreuses entreprises frauduleuses sur le marché, mais vous pouvez facilement les éviter en lisant les critiques des services de rédaction de journaux universitaires de confiance sur Yahoo, TrustPilot et SiteJabber.

Les services de rédaction d’essais sont-ils légitimes et sûrs à utiliser?

Oui, il existe de nombreux services légitimes de rédaction d’essais, et Expert en rédaction est l’un d’eux. Ce site est populaire sur Reddit et jouit d’une excellente réputation en ligne. Les entreprises légitimes ont généralement un bureau hors ligne où vous pouvez venir rencontrer le propriétaire, par exemple. Ce n’est pas obligatoire, mais pourrait vous être utile lorsque vous déciderez du service à choisir.

Si les services de rédaction de dissertations n’étaient pas légitimes, ils ne seraient pas aussi populaires parmi les étudiants. Lisez les critiques des services de rédaction pour dire loin des escroqueries. Personne ne veut avoir d’ennuis, et un service de rédaction d’essais de confiance ne vous causera aucun problème à coup sûr.

Comment embaucher quelqu’un pour rédiger mon essai universitaire?

La meilleure façon de le faire est d’aller à l’un des services de rédaction d’essais fiables et de remplir le bon de commande. Ou, au cas où vous auriez trop de détails et d’exigences, écrivez au représentant du support client pour prendre toutes les dispositions. Les meilleurs services de rédaction d’essais sont généralement de qualité plus cohérente que les pigistes que vous pouvez embaucher sur Reddit ou ailleurs sur Internet. Les sites de rédaction d’essais spécialisés vous offrent plus de garanties, il est donc raisonnable de les choisir parmi des rédacteurs d’essais aléatoires sur Internet, même s’ils prétendent être des professionnels.

Les services de rédaction d’essais en valent-ils la peine?

Cela dépend de votre affectation et de la situation unique dans laquelle vous vous trouvez. Si vous avez un emploi à temps plein et que vous ne pouvez pas suivre toutes les affectations du collège, alors utiliser un service de rédaction papier est un choix judicieux.

Si vous avez un essai d’une page attendu dans, disons, cinq jours et que vous êtes tout simplement paresseux de l’écrire par vous-même, cela n’en vaut pas la peine. Il est préférable de surmonter la paresse et d’écrire votre article par vous-même, car de cette façon, vous aurez une chance d’améliorer vos compétences en rédaction d’essais. Vous n’aurez besoin d’aucune aide si vous investissez du temps pour apprendre à rédiger des essais et à exceller dans cette compétence.

Comment trouver des avis authentiques sur le service de rédaction d’essais?

Il existe peu de plates-formes de révision qui publient de véritables critiques car elles ont une politique stricte pour les nouveaux clients. Vous pouvez trouver des avis authentiques sur les sites Web tels que SiteJabber, TrustPilot, ResellerRatings. En outre, vous pouvez trouver des critiques sur les sites Web des services de rédaction d’essais, mais ils méritent un niveau de confiance inférieur, car toute entreprise peut mettre n’importe quoi sur son site Web et vous ne pourrez pas en vérifier la légitimité.

Le seul moyen sûr de trouver les meilleures critiques de services de rédaction d’essais réels et honnêtes est de les rechercher sur Reddit ou sur les réseaux sociaux. En dehors de cela, si vous voulez en savoir plus sur un site Web populaire, demandez à vos amis de l’université qui ont déjà utilisé un service d’écriture. Nul doute qu’ils les ont utilisés et pourront vous fournir des informations privilégiées.

S’il y a une demande – il y a une offre

Il y a environ 20 ans, les étudiants ont eu la possibilité d’obtenir une aide professionnelle en rédaction académique. Au début, ce sont des sites Web aléatoires et des rédacteurs indépendants qui ont offert leur aide à très faible coût. C’était plus un soutien psychologique. Mais bientôt, il a donné de merveilleux résultats et s’est transformé en un service régulier extrêmement populaire.

Ces cinq meilleurs services de rédaction papier ne sont apparus de nulle part. Les étudiants ont toujours eu du mal avec beaucoup de devoirs et de devoirs difficiles. Aujourd’hui, il y a de nombreux endroits où ils peuvent venir chercher de l’aide pour la rédaction, et c’est une bonne chose. Il leur suffit de s’informer des risques liés à l’utilisation de ces sites. Voici quelques entreprises notables qui ne figurent pas sur notre liste pour diverses raisons: BestEssays, MasterPapers, TopEssayWriting, MyPerfectWords.



Publié le Catégories Réseaux sociaux

🔵⚪🔴 6 Key Elements of Using Social Media for Customer Service – Stratégie Réseaux Sociaux


Have you ever complained to a brand publicly via social media?

I’ll admit it, I have done this.

Fortunately, my comments received a response and a resolution to the problem. But this is not always the case with every business—and it should be.

Following essential social media customer service best practices is vital to supporting your consumer base and retaining them long term.

In this article, you’ll discover:

  • how to leverage social media as a customer support channel,
  • examples of social media customer service from brands,
  • what to do with negative comments and complaints,
  • tools to monitor customer service on social media,
  • …and more.

Let’s dive in!

Social Media and Customer Service

A two-way conversation, or social connection, has long been the intended purpose for social media.

We’re now seeing social media platforms used to grow business by:

  • Boosting brand awareness
  • Marketing products or services
  • “Listening” to consumers

Social media and customer service may not have been an intentional combination for these channels when developed.

However, many people having an issue or question look for a quick solution by using social media for customer service inquiries on a frequent basis.

In fact, 67% of consumers have engaged a brand’s social media for customer service needs.

That’s a lot of people, and a lot of exposure for a brand!

Ultimately, creating a brand with an inclusive and helpful community via social media is the goal of any business.

10 Ways to Set Realistic Social Media Goals BONUS CHECKLIST
Use this checklist to create the right social media goals for business growth (includes examples). Outline your strategy for branding, conversions…and more!
DOWNLOAD NOW

In order to be effective, using social media for customer service must now become a part of your overall social media strategy.

SEE ALSO: 7 Effective Social Media Best Practices for Business

67% of consumers have engaged a brand’s social media for customer service needs.Click To Tweet

Are you using social media for customer service in the right way for your business?

Take a look at six key elements you’ll want to employ in your efforts.


6 Social Media Customer Service Best Practices

1. Reply as quickly as possible on social media.

Most forms of customer support via phone and email are not typically expected to be available 24/7. Yet, social media customer support has created an “always-on” expectation.

As a result, 42% of consumers expect a response on social media within 60 minutes.

This means responding to inquiries, reviews, and complaints as quickly as possible is the best social media customer service strategy.

42% of consumers expect a customer service response on social media within 60 minutes.Click To Tweet

The effects of poor response time for customer service through social media are real, causing people to:

  • Tell their family and friends about the experience
  • Use another channel to escalate their concerns again
  • Buy less from a company in the future
  • Not recommend a brand’s products or services
  • Complain publicly via social media

6 Key Elements of Using Social Media for Customer Service | What happens after a poor customer experience (statistics)

Read that one more time: 56% will never use the company again.

On social media customer service inquiries, timely responses are rewarded.

Using Facebook for Customer Service

Your company’s Facebook support response time rate is clearly shown on your Facebook page.

Facebook only considers your business “quick” (or, very responsive) when it replies within 5 minutes or less—around the clock!

6 Key Elements of Using Social Media for Customer Service | Facebook response rate badge (very responsive)

Now, you may not have the ability or resources to monitor social media accounts 24 hours a day.

Fortunately, the addition of programmable messenger “bots” and customizable away messages for off-hours give you other quick and effective options for providing customer service on Facebook.

Using Twitter for Customer Service

With Twitter, it’s safe to say that people expect a reply immediately.

This is, of course, the nature of Twitter.

The platform is often compared to a 24-hour news ticker with a constant flow of information. Therefore, conversations often occur in the same rapid fashion as texting.

By the numbers, 53% want a response within the hour on Twitter. What’s more, this jumps up to 72% expecting a response within an hour after issuing a complaint.

SEE ALSO: How to Use Twitter Chats for Marketing Your Business

To excel at customer service on Twitter, use the relationship-building techniques found at the center of any solid customer support process:

  • Listen
  • Appreciate
  • Resolve

The challenge is Twitter’s 280-character limit, requiring a concise message.

In some cases, acknowledging a customer service issue, thanking the customer and providing resolution can be done in 280 characters or less!

But when it cannot, guide customers to DM (direct messages).

This is especially useful if an issue is negative—since Tweets are public and DMs are private.

Remembering the need for real-time replies on both public and private correspondence is important when it comes to using social media for customer service—and especially on Twitter.

Take a look at one of the more successful social media customer service examples, resulting in a sale.

Social Media Customer Service Examples: Best Buy

As seen in the screenshot below, Best Buy did not receive a direct @ mention on Twitter by the customer. They were likely listening for their brand name with a tool to monitor customer service on social media (see more on this later).

Reply as quickly as possible on social media | 6 Key Elements of Using Social Media for Customer Service

Within the hour, a customer service social media representative responded with a helpful message suggesting product specific to the customer’s pain point. In addition, the Best Buy rep even suggested items on sale.

Later within the same day, the customer purchases from the Best Buy brand and takes the time to notify them in the same social media thread on Twitter.

Here’s the deal:

Social media response times are certainly an important metric to focus on and include in a customer service strategy. Not only can it strengthen the relationship with a customer, but can boost sales in the right context!

SEE ALSO: How to Set Realistic Social Media Goals for Business Growth


2. Know which social media posts should be resolved in public or private.

You already know you can’t please everyone, so prepare for the inevitable negative comment or complaint.

Create a process to provide clear direction on handling customer service through social media for your business.

Guidelines are important to document and follow, as consistency can only strengthen your overall brand building.

I’ll explain further.

Outline which kinds of comments should be resolved publicly. These public social media comments would exist on:

  • Page posts or reviews for Facebook
  • Posts on Instagram
  • Openly via tweets on Twitter

Then, determine which conversations should become private—whether it be moved to direct message, email or phone.

This process looks different for every business but follows a general framework.

For direct messages that require research, reply immediately to let the sender know the message has been received and an answer is coming shortly.

For example-

Consumer: “I’m not seeing the tracking number for my recent order and it hasn’t arrived yet.”

Brand: “Hello [Name], Thank you for your inquiry! Let us look into that for you. We will reply shortly!”

Sometimes, a message does not seem to require a reply because it’s not a question. Still, be sure to reply so that your response rate percentage is not affected. The key is timely acknowledgment.

For example-

Consumer: “The new website was confusing but now I understand.”

Brand: “Hello [Name], Thanks for letting us know. Let us know how else we can help you.”

In Facebook, your comment should be the last message sent in the exchange. Facebook response rate algorithm is only able to tell who sent the last message. For example, even if a sender ends the exchange with “Thank you”, send another message saying “You’re welcome!” or “Glad we could help!”.

Create a process and guidelines to handle customer service through social media for your business.Click To Tweet

Social Media Customer Service Process Questions

Ask yourself the following questions to help create a process that works for your social media and customer service:

QUESTION #1
Who will review incoming customer comments to determine if it requires a positive/negative interaction?

QUESTION #2
What are some examples of positive and negative comments, based on customer service interactions your company has already had?

QUESTION #3
How do you handle it—if the interaction is negative, do you diffuse immediately or direct the customer to the phone for support?

Examples of Social Media Customer Service: GoDaddy

When a customer inquires about something that requires account information which should remain private, GoDaddy responds accordingly on Twitter.

Know which social media customer service posts should be resolved in public or private | 6 Key Elements of Using Social Media for Customer Service

Here are the important things to note in this social media customer service response:

  • A cordial, friendly opening line
  • Concise direction provided for the next step
  • Link embedded in the tweet for direct message

Using the CTA (call-to-action) link feature that Twitter provides helps save customers the effort of opening up another direct message thread on their own. Brilliant!

3. Respond to all social media feedback, questions, and comments.

Every post, review, and check-in on social media needs acknowledgment.

This is one of the biggest social media customer service best practices.

Don’t let someone’s thoughts go into a black hole.

A customer wants to be heard, plain and simple!

Since so many comments can be viewed by the public, businesses have an incentive to be attentive to everybody via social media.

The incentive is crystal clear: not replying equates to ignoring a customer.

Every post, review, and check-in on social media needs acknowledgment.Click To Tweet

Social Media Customer Service Best Practices | 6 Key Elements of Using Social Media for Customer Service

Just as no business would ignore a customer in their store, no business should leave a comment unattended online!

Streamlining Your Social Media Customer Service Process

Use the data you gathered while answering the questions above in section #2.

Create a series of pre-written replies to help streamline the process of social network moderation.

The key to using canned responses is ensuring they read correctly to the end user.

Similarly to email replies, the customer will interpret words without tone and inflection. So, the best customer service responses should be written in ways that cannot be misconstrued.

However, unlike email these replies will be public—as will the time stamp (see section #1: reply as soon as possible on social media).

Users want personal attention, so customize the reply to the individual on a case-by-case basis. Scripted replies are guidelines you will modify to fit a situation.

The goal is to create a community feel.

Hence, responses that seem automated are counter-productive.

For major corporations, replying to every single post may not align with the overall strategy for social media and customer service simply because of the sheer number of comments.

The rate at which your company replies to posts can align with the size of your brand.

  • Small businesses need to reply to everything as a means of community-building.
  • Mid- to large-size companies may choose to acknowledge positive comments with a simple “like”, while putting more time into turning negative comments around.
  • Large corporations often dedicate entire teams when using social media for customer service. Some even manage support from a totally different account or page than the brand.

Just as no business would ignore a customer in their store, no business should leave a comment unattended online!Click To Tweet

Social Media Customer Service Examples: JetBlue Airways

Airline travel can be frustrating when so many things can go wrong with delays, cancellations, lost luggage, etc. Therefore, customers often take to Twitter and Facebook to voice their complaints on social media publicly and can do so easily via a smartphone.

Respond to all social media feedback, questions and comments | 6 Key Elements of Using Social Media for Customer Service

In this situation, relating to the issue and acknowledging the frustration helps a JetBlue customer service rep diffuse the emotion of an angry flyer.

When crafting customer service responses on social media, mirroring words can make someone feel heard:

I understand that you are upset about (insert their complaint here, and their name). We would like to speak with you by phone to learn more about the situation, so we can find a way to remedy it for you. Please call us: insert phone number.”


4. Include a greeting and be transparent with names or initials.

If a name is apparent from your customer’s social profile, don’t hesitate to use it with a greeting.

A simple “Hello [name]”, or “Hi [name]” helps reach out with a personal touch.

Furthermore, closing social media customer service responses with a -Sonia or -SG (first name or initials) also humanizes the response.

This creates accountability on both sides of the coin.

  • It makes the user feel heard by an actual person.
  • It allows the business to see who replied should there ever be a dispute.

Seems simple, but many companies don’t do this. These are easy things to include that soften a reply considerably.

6 Key Elements of Using Social Media for Customer Service | Include a greeting and be transparent with names or initials

Imagine that you are leaving a concerned comment or review, and the brand reaches out to you publicly. You wish to reply, but you don’t know who replied to you. So you just address the company, or no one at all.

Giving a customer your name humanizes the brand instantly. It offers them someone to speak to directly should they be interested in continuing the conversation.


5. Combat negativity with positivity on social media.

When a negative comment is posted, businesses can be inclined to defend themselves.

Always meet negativity with positivity.

They say the customer is always right, and that age-old saying applies ten-fold online.

When a customer complains in the store, perhaps three other customers could overhear.

When a customer complains on social media, every single one of your customers could potentially see it in their news feed!

Remaining positive also helps to breed support from your loyal customers.

Other fans or followers will often rally around the business when a single negative follower is antagonizing the company. Depending on how likely your business is to be on the receiving end of social media negativity, brainstorming positive responses can be a crucial piece of your customer service social media strategy.

To prepare for negative content on social media, consider gathering previous negative calls and emails for review. Then, create 1-3 positive responses for each.

The most important thing is to show you care and value the customer’s opinion, regardless of whether it started out negative.

Always meet negativity with positivity when a customer complains on social media.Click To Tweet

Demonstrating empathy in your responses goes a long way when using social media for customer service. In some cases, it’s the difference between a 1-star review, and a 5-star one.

Social Media Customer Service Examples: Applebee’s

Let’s take a look at how Applebee’s handles an issue (they are known more for their humorous, quirky customer service responses on social media).

Applebee’s replies in a timely manner, greets a customer by name, apologizes, offers a phone number to take it offline AND signs with initials. All in under 280 characters!

(Note: since original publishing of this article, Twitter increased their character count from 140 to 280)


6. Monitor customer service through social media with a tool

The moderator for incoming customer service through social media should be given the same training that traditional representatives receive, and a tool to aid their process.

This holds true, regardless of whether you are a company with a new social media presence. Or, a company who has had social media platforms for a long time and just now using social media for customer service purposes.

Social Media Customer Service Tools

Monitoring customer service activity on Facebook and Twitter (and other platforms like Instagram or Google+) is best accomplished with tools such as:

These types of social customer service tools offer the ability to listen to consumers across multiple platforms. Accounts can be monitored by a single customer service representative or a team.

6 Key Elements of Using Social Media for Customer Service | Monitor customer service on social media with a tool

You’ll be able to add streams that show search results for phrases such as your brand name. What’s more, it can help you respond to questions or issues, without your company being directly @ mention or being tagged.

Oftentimes customer service social media training is included with the price of an online tool or software. Take advantage of this!

Because social media never “closes”, tools can notify you with a text or on an app—even when your business is off hours.


Conclusion

When they need to ask a question or solve a problem, consumers worldwide said they prefer to get help online, according to a study by Oracle on customer service.

The role of social media in customer service can play a big part in the success of your brand loyalty and advocacy.

With the right preparation and listening tool, using social media for customer service can take your digital community to the next level.

Be ready to use your social media platforms to support customers by including the six key elements provided here.

Let’s recap the essentials of your social media customer service strategy:

  1. Reply as quickly as possible on social media
  2. Know which social media posts to resolve in public or private
  3. Respond to all social media feedback, questions and comments
  4. Include a greeting and be transparent with names or initials
  5. Combat negativity with positivity on social media
  6. Monitor customer service through social media with a tool

How are you planning on using social media for customer service?

Tell us in comments below!

10 Ways to Set Realistic Social Media Goals BONUS CHECKLIST
Use this checklist to create the right social media goals for business growth (includes examples). Outline your strategy for branding, conversions…and more!
DOWNLOAD NOW

FreshSparks is a creative studio specializing in brand strategy, web design and development, and digital marketing. Your online presence needs to be a marketing machine. We can help you with that. Get a free consultation for your next project.

If you liked this post, please share!



Publié le Catégories Réseaux sociaux

🔵⚪🔴 L’augmentation de la consommation de hashish entraîne une demande croissante de technologie d’alcootest efficace – Stratégie Réseaux Sociaux


NEW YORK, 19 avril 2021 / PRNewswire / – L’industrie du cannabis a radicalement changé au cours des cinq dernières années. Grâce à l’évolution des sentiments des consommateurs, aux victoires législatives dans plusieurs grands États et à la disponibilité de nouveaux produits pour une substantial population, l’industrie du hashish est devenue un marché majeur attirant des investisseurs du monde entier. La perception as well as accueillante de la légalisation du hashish peut être attribuée, en grande partie, à l’adoption du Farm Bill de 2018, qui a légalisé la creation de chanvre industriel, le transformant en un produit agricole courant. Peu de temps après, de nombreuses catégories de produits CBD ont commencé à apparaître. Alors que le hashish médical domine toujours le vaste marché du cannabis, les endeavours croissants de sensibilisation et de légalisation devraient propulser davantage l’industrie dans son ensemble. Par exemple, ces dernières semaines, New York est devenu le dernier État à légaliser le cannabis récréatif et, ce faisant, il devrait devenir l’un des furthermore grands marchés du pays. Cannabix Technologies Inc. (OTC: BLOZF) (CSE: BLO), Curaleaf Hldgs Inc. (OTC: CURLF), Inexperienced Thumb Industries Inc. (OTC: GTBIF), Aphria Inc. (NASDAQ: APHA), Cresco Labs Inc. ( OTC: CRLBF)

Lentement, de in addition en plus d’États mettent en œuvre une législation pour réglementer les produits du cannabis. Les ventes de ces produits étant de additionally en in addition répandues, de nouvelles réglementations importantes devraient être mises en œuvre. In addition précisément, les régulateurs gouvernementaux ont exprimé leurs inquiétudes quant au potentiel d’abus de cannabis. En règle générale, les agents des forces de l’ordre peuvent effectuer des assessments sur le terrain tels que des exams de sobriété ou même des tests d’échantillons. Cependant, les tests de sobriété peuvent être inexacts, tandis que les assessments d’échantillons peuvent ne pas recevoir de résultats pendant des jours, voire des semaines. En conséquence, les entreprises du marché du hashish ont commencé à développer la technologie nécessaire pour que les organismes d’application de la loi puissent les utiliser dans la répression des conducteurs conduisant un véhicule sous l’influence de la cannabis.

Technologies Cannabix Inc. (OTC: BLOZF) (CSE: BLO) vient d’annoncer une nouvelle de dernière heure selon laquelle “il a reçu un avis d’acceptation de l’Office de la propriété intellectuelle du Canada (OPIC) pour sa demande de brevet de 2015, n ° 2887841, intitulée” Dispositif de détection des drogues au hashish “. La Société poursuit cette demande de brevet originale depuis son dépôt le 16 avril 2015. Il est à noter qu’un avis d’acceptation de l’OPIC ne constitue pas une délivrance de brevet. La société fera rapport en temps opportun sur les développements importants concernant sa demande de brevet «Dispositif de détection des drogues à foundation de cannabis» auprès de l’OPIC.

Cannabix Systems est à l’avant-garde de la recherche et du développement pour créer des technologies de examination d’haleine au place de company pour la détection du ∆9-tétrahydrocannabinol («THC») – le composant psychoactif de la cannabis qui induce des facultés affaiblies.

À propos de Cannabix Systems Inc.

Cannabix Systems Inc. est un développeur de systems d’alcootest de cannabis pour les forces de l’ordre et le lieu de travail. Cannabix travaille au développement de dispositifs de dépistage de drogues qui détecteront le THC – le composant psychoactif de la cannabis qui result in des facultés affaiblies à l’aide d’échantillons d’haleine. Un test respiratoire pour le THC permettrait aux employeurs et aux forces de l’ordre d’identifier la consommation récente de cannabis qui correspond mieux à la déficience. ”

Pour notre dernier spectacle «Buzz on the Street» mettant en vedette les dernières nouvelles de l’entreprise Cannabix Technologies Inc., veuillez vous rendre sur:

https://www.youtube.com/observe?v=bK-YHEI7wfI&ab_channel=FinancialBuzzMedia

Curaleaf Hldgs Inc. (OTCQX: CURLF) a annoncé moreover tôt ce mois-ci une nouvelle impression de marque Curaleaf pour les factors de vente récemment acquis de la société et l’ouverture de deux nouveaux magasins à Horsham et crême Philadelphia. Les nouveaux magasins de marque Curaleaf marquent les 11e et 12e emplacements de la société en Pennsylvanie. En tant qu’opérateur de hashish verticalement intégré reconnu pour sa qualité, son skills et sa fiabilité, Curaleaf est la as well as grande marque nationale de vente au détail de cannabis aux États-Unis, et disposera de 104 emplacements dans 23 États après l’ouverture des deux nouvelles Pennsylvanie dispensaires. “Nous sommes heureux d’étendre et de renforcer notre présence au détail en Pennsylvanie, offrant à nos people des soins et une éducation inégalés, ainsi qu’un accès à des produits de hashish de qualité supérieure », a déclaré Joe Bayern, Directeur général de Curaleaf. «Nous sommes impatients de desservir ces communautés et prévoyons que la demande dépassera rapidement les ventes prévues sur ce marché, alors que le cannabis go on de gagner en acceptation pour une variété de besoins en matière de santé et de bien-être.

Environmentally friendly Thumb Industries Inc. (OTCQB: GTBIF) a annoncé la semaine dernière le lancement de Cann, une des principales marques de boissons infusées au hashish, en Illinois. Green Thumb et Cann ont précédemment annoncé un partenariat pour amener la marque de boissons à Illinois et New Jersey avec des options d’expansion vers d’autres marchés. Cann est maintenant disponible à tous Increase ™ Illinois emplacements des dispensaires (à l’exclusion Mundelein), ainsi que dans les magasins de détail Ascend, Moca et MedMen. Se lever Joliet (Colorado), Increase Lake in the Hills et Rise Niles hébergeront également un magasin éphémère Cann jusqu’en août avec un ambassadeur de la marque Cann sur put pour répondre aux thoughts sur les nouveaux toniques sociaux de cannabis disponibles. «La catégorie des boissons au hashish se développe à mesure que les adultes recherchent des solutions à l’alcool, et Cann offre une expérience supérieure», a déclaré le fondateur et chef de la path de Environmentally friendly Thumb Ben Kovler. “Nous considérons le Cann comme un substitut aux seltzers, au vin et à la bière pour les nouveaux consommateurs de hashish qui cherchent à réduire ou à remplacer l’alcool, mais qui veulent quand même l’interaction sociale familière consistant à partager un verre avec des amis et la famille. Si vous n’aimez pas la gueule de bois, c’est pour toi.”

Aphria Inc. (NASDAQ: APHA) a rapporté la semaine dernière l’ajout des huiles à haute puissance THC 30: et Solei As well as + de Very good Offer à son portefeuille de marques primées à utilization adulte, qui rejoignent une gamme d’autres formats disponibles, y compris des fleurs séchées entières, pré- rouleaux, sprays oraux, gels mous, vapos et topiques. «Chez Aphria Inc., nous comprenons l’importance d’offrir une flexibilité aux consommateurs en ce qui concerne les solutions de consommation, c’est pourquoi l’élargissement de notre portefeuille pour inclure des huiles à haute puissance était une priorité pour l’équipe», a déclaré Irwin D. Simon, Chef de la course chez Aphria Inc. “Nous continuons de faire de notre priorité de fournir aux Canadiens du cannabis de la in addition haute qualité et l’ajout d’huiles à haute puissance ne fait pas exception.”

Cresco Labs Inc. (OTCQX: CRLBF) a annoncé la semaine dernière le lancement de Marvel Wellness (“Surprise”) Gummies et la disponibilité en Illinois. Les nouveaux produits comestibles à faible dose sont enrichis de plantes pour compléter l’expérience globale du hashish, et leur emballage easy communique les effets souhaités afin que les nouveaux arrivants de la catégorie soucieux de bien-être puissent consommer en toute confiance pour ajouter du hashish à leur method de vie quotidien. «Nous nous concentrons sur l’augmentation de notre portion grâce à une stratégie d’innovation qui capitalise à la fois sur la dynamique du marché et sur l’espace blanc du portefeuille de produits comestibles», a déclaré Greg Butler, Chief Industrial Officer chez Cresco Labs. “Les bonbons gélifiés à 5 mg représentent l’un des segments de marché les moreover importants, et les offres Marvel Wellness répondent à certains des besoins les as well as souhaitables des consommateurs: se détendre, mieux dormir et être heureux. Marvel Wellness est conçu pour les instances exactes où le bien-être – les consommateurs avertis recherchent des produits pour améliorer ou améliorer leurs expériences quotidiennes. “

Abonnez-vous maintenant! Regardez-nous rapport en direct https://www.youtube.com/FinancialBuzzMedia

Suivez-nous sur Twitter pour des mises à jour financières en temps réel: https://twitter.com/financialbuzz

Suivez-nous et parlez-nous sur Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/financialbuzz

Facebook Like Us pour recevoir des flux en direct: https://www.facebook.com/Financialbuzz/

À propos de FinancialBuzz.com

FinancialBuzz.com, un portail Net d’information sur l’actualité financière de leading prepare conçu pour fournir les dernières tendances en matière d’actualités du marché, d’actualités sur les investissements, de funds personnelles, de politique, de divertissement, de diffusions approfondies sur les nouvelles boursières, l’analyse du marché et les entrevues d’entreprises. Pionnier dans le domaine du numérique, de la creation vidéo et de l’intégration des médias sociaux, FinancialBuzz.com crée un contenu primary 100% distinctive. FinancialBuzz.com propose également la diffusion d’informations financières, l’image de marque, le marketing et la publicité pour des tiers pour des informations d’entreprise et du contenu initial through notre plate-forme multimédia exclusive qui comprend Newswire Shipping and delivery, Digital Marketing, Social Media Relations, creation vidéo, diffusion et publications financières.

Veuillez noter: FinancialBuzz.com n’est pas un conseiller ou un conseiller financier, un conseiller en placement ou un courtier et n’entreprend aucune activité qui exigerait une telle inscription. Les informations fournies sur http://www.FinancialBuzz.com (le “ Internet site ”) sont soit des actualités financières originales, soit des publicités payantes fournies [exclusively] par nos affiliés (contenu sponsorisé), FinancialBuzz.com, une société de médias et de marketing d’information financière conclut des achats dans les médias ou des accords de service avec les sociétés faisant l’objet des articles publiés sur le web site ou d’autres éditoriaux pour la publicité de ces sociétés. FinancialBuzz.com n’a été rémunéré directement par aucune des sociétés mentionnées ici dans cet éditorial, sauf indication contraire. Nous ne sommes pas un fournisseur de médias d’information indépendant et, par conséquent, ne déclarons ni ne garantissons que les informations publiées sur le site sont exactes, impartiales ou complètes. FinancialBuzz.com reçoit des honoraires pour la output et la présentation de contenu sophistiqué et de haute qualité sur FinancialBuzz.com ainsi que d’autres providers de médias d’information financière. FinancialBuzz.com n’offre pas d’opinions personnelles, de recommandations ou de commentaires biaisés auto nous incorporons purement des informations sur le marché public ainsi que des nouvelles financières et d’entreprise. FinancialBuzz.com agrège ou régurgite uniquement les actualités financières ou d’entreprise by using notre fil d’actualité financier one of a kind et notre plateforme médiatique. Pour Cannabix Technologies Inc. output vidéo, montage de tournage, reportage d’actualité, diffusion d’actualités financières et d’entreprise, FinancialBuzz.com a été rémunéré Cinq mille dollars par la compagnie. Nos honoraires peuvent être soit une somme forfaitaire en espèces, soit un nombre négocié de titres des sociétés figurant sur cet éditorial ou ce site, ou une combinaison de ceux-ci. Les titres sont généralement payés par segments, dont une partie est reçue lors de l’engagement et le solde est payé à la fin ou près de la conclusion de l’engagement. FinancialBuzz.com divulguera toujours toute compensation en valeurs mobilières ou en espèces pour la publicité dans les relations publiques d’actualité financière. FinancialBuzz.com ne s’engage pas à mettre à jour les informations sur l’éditorial ou sur le web site ou à continuer à publier des informations sur les sociétés.Les informations contenues dans ce doc ne sont pas destinées à être utilisées comme foundation de décisions d’investissement et ne doivent pas être considérées comme des conseils d’investissement ou Une recommendation. Les informations contenues dans ce doc ne constituent pas une offre ou une sollicitation d’achat, de détention ou de vente de titres. FinancialBuzz.com, les membres et les affiliés ne sont pas responsables des gains ou des pertes résultant des viewpoints exprimées sur cet éditorial ou sur ce web site, des profils d’entreprise, des citations ou dans d’autres paperwork ou présentations qu’il publie électroniquement ou sous forme imprimée. Les investisseurs acceptent l’entière responsabilité de toutes leurs décisions d’investissement sur la base de leurs propres recherches et évaluations indépendantes de leurs propres objectifs d’investissement, de leur tolérance au risque et de leur scenario financière. FinancialBuzz.com. En accédant à cet éditorial et à ce web page Website et à ses internet pages, vous acceptez d’être lié par les problems d’utilisation et la politique de confidentialité, qui peuvent être modifiées de temps à autre. Aucun des contenus émis par FinancialBuzz.com ne constitue une recommandation pour un investisseur d’acheter, de détenir ou de vendre un titre particulier, de poursuivre une stratégie d’investissement particulière ou que tout titre convient à tout investisseur. Cette publication est fournie par FinancialBuzz.com. Chaque investisseur est seul responsable de déterminer si un titre ou une stratégie d’investissement particulier est adapté en fonction de ses objectifs, des autres titres détenus, des besoins en matière de condition financière et du statut fiscal. Vous acceptez de consulter votre conseiller en placement, votre conseiller fiscal et juridique avant de prendre toute décision d’investissement. Nous ne faisons aucune déclaration quant à l’exhaustivité, l’exactitude ou l’intemporalité du matériel fourni. Tous les matériaux sont sujets à changement sans préavis. Les informations sont obtenues à partir de sources considérées comme fiables, mais leur exactitude et leur exhaustivité ne sont pas garanties. Pour connaître notre déni de responsabilité, notre divulgation et nos conditions d’utilisation, veuillez visiter: http://www.financialbuzz.com.

Get hold of médias:

[email protected]
+ 1-877-601-1879
www.FinancialBuzz.com

Source FinancialBuzz.com



Publié le Catégories Réseaux sociaux